References Beh, A.,& Bruyere, B. L. (2007). Segmentation by visitor motivation in three Kenyan national reserve. Tourism Management , 28(5), 1464-1471. Bernet, P. (2004). Interaction between nature protection and leisure groups, an example of the largest protectedarea surrounding Lake Greifensee, canton Zurich, Switzerland. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and ProtectedAreas, June 16-20, Rovaniemi, Finland (pp. 136-142). Retrieved June 24, 2007, from http
paper , No 1, ACE-DP-1. Gurney G.G., Pressey R.L., Cinner J.E., Pollnac R., Campbell S.J. 2015. Integrated conservation and development: evaluating a community-based marine protectedarea project for equality of socioeconomic impacts. (Theme issue ‘Measuring the difference made by protectedareas: methods, applications and implications for policy and practice’ compiled and edited by R. L. Pressey and P. J. Ferraro). Philosophical Transaction of Royal Society B. (370)1681. Howard P. 1995. The Economics of ProtectedAreas in Uganda: Costs, Benefits, and Policy Issues
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supplementation for howler monkeys living in forest patches. Biotropica , 41: 768-773. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2009.00533.x . Bailey, K. M., Mccleery, R. A., Binford, M. W., Zweig, C. (2016). Land-cover change within and around protectedareas in a biodiversity hotspot. Journal of Land Use Science , 11(2), 154-176. Blair, R. (2004). The effects of urban sprawl on birds at multiple levels of biological organization. Ecology and Society , 9(5), 2. Bogaert, J., Barima, Y. S. S., Mongo, W., Bamba, I., Mama, A., Toyi, M. & Lafortezza, R. (2011). Forest Fragmentation
Nusa Penida comprises a group of islands in the south-east of Bali. This archipelago contains a high level of marine biodiversity and has significant tourism potential. In addition, Nusa Penida has aquaculture and fishing areas, which continue to be developed. Efforts towards conservation and sustainable use by means of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an important solution to counteract increasing pressure on natural resources due to economic activities. Zoning system arrangements to protect marine biodiversity, as well as sustainable economic activities, form the highest priority in the management of the Nusa Penida MPA.
The paper provides an overview of the coastal ecosystem of Nusa Penida and the potential for sustainable utilization of natural resources, as well as demonstrates the socioeconomic condition of the Nusa Penida community. Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) in 2009 for the marine ecosystems in the waters of Nusa Penida serves as baseline data to provide inputs for defining the MPA, including a zoning system and a management plan.
The ecological survey revealed 1,419 ha of coral reef with 296 species, 230 ha of mangrove with 13 species, and 108 ha of seagrass beds with 8 species. The assessment of fish biodiversity revealed 296 species of fish, including five that are new to science. Nusa Penida’s waters are home to marine megafauna such as sea turtles, sharks and cetaceans, also unique and charismatic fish such as ocean sunfish (Mola mola) and manta rays (Manta birostris), that occur predictably annually.
Marine tourism, seaweed farming and capture fisheries are the main economic activities for the income of the coastal community. Nusa Penida is visited by more than 200,000 tourists each year. The tourists dive in 20 dive-spots arround the waters. There are 308 ha of seaweed farming that produce more than 50 tons per month. About 850 local fishermen depend for their livelihood on the fishing grounds around the waters of Nusa Penida for their livelihood. In total, some 46,000 residents depend on the marine biodiversity of the archipelago for their livelihood.
Destructive fishing and over-fishing are serious threats to the reef ecosystem within the Nusa Penida MPA, as well as to the sustainable fisheries. The lack of a clear zoning system and its attendant regulation of uses for Nusa Penida’s coastal area and marine resources mean potential conflicts between marine tourism, seaweed farming and the fisheries. The establishment of the MPA with a management plan is imperative to regulate the sustainable use of marine resources.
Subject and purpose of work: The Gorce National Park (GNP) represents the object of the study. The purpose of the article is to present the GNP in the category of an area and in the category of an active managing unit. Materials and methods: Empirical research was conducted (2008-2014) based on the data collected from the GNP financial and accounting records and the Central Statistical Office. The degree of tourism function, carried out by the territorial municipalities connected with the GNP, was studied (Baretje and Defert index and Charvat index were calculated) and also the analysis of the GNP activities was conducted. Both the relevant literature query and the analysis of development strategies prepared by the territorial municipalities connected with the GNP were conducted. Results: It was found that the tourist function constitutes an important, however, not the primary function for the analysed municipalities, whereas the initiated activities (both on the part of municipalities and the GNP) indicate the desire for its intensification. The GNP has assets exceeding the value of PLN 17 million, offers jobs for the team whose total annual remuneration is almost PLN 2,5 million and the total annual costs for the last audited year amount to PLN 7,5 million. Conclusions: The described protected area constitutes the example of proper coexistence of human economic activity and nature. The GNP remains a significant entity of the local economic life scene which increases tourist attractiveness of the Gorce Mountains.
. 3. p. 181-191. Ponec, J. and Mihálik, Š. (1981) Nature Reserves in Slovakia. Martin: Osveta, 281p. (in Slovak) Procházka, V. (1990) Mountaineering. Praha: Olympia. 241 p. ISBN 80-7033-037-6. Rozložník, M. (1998) The Biosphere Reserve Slovak Karst form the Viewpoint of its Twenty Years Existence. In: Životné Prostredie. vol. 32, no. 1, p. 15-18. Škodová, M. and Mazúrek J. (2011) Protectedareas of Slovakia, Banska Bystrica: Matej Bel University, 117 p. ISBN: 978-80-557-0138-7. (in Slovak) Štupákova, V. (2013) Feasibility study of an intermodal cross
References Abbas M.S., Afefe A.A., Hatab E. E., Gaber E.I., 2016, Vegetation soil relationships in Wadi El-Rayan protectedarea, Western Desert, Egypt, Jordan J. Bio. Sci. 9(2): 97–107. Abd El-Ghani M., Amer W.M., 2003, Soil–vegetation relationships in a coastal desert plain of southern Sinai, Egypt, J. Arid Environ. 55(4): 607–628. Abdou W.A., 2002, Environmental study on Wadi El Rayan, El Fayoum Governorate [Thesis], Mansoura University, Mansoura, 174 pp. Afefe A., 2014, Ecological studies on the vegetation cover in North Africa Protectorates: A case study of
within the following counties: Pińczów (Pińczów, Michałów, Działoszyce and Złota communes) and Kazimierza Wielka (Czarnocin commune). The KLP is located in the central part of the Nida Basin, with the eastern part of the Wodzisław Ridge. The area is characterised by a varied topography shaped by a Cretaceous basement covered with loess, vast forest areas and picturesque settlements scattered among forests and fields [ Sidło et al., 2000 ]. Figure 1 Percentage of protectedareas in the Voivodeships of Poland: (1) Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship, (2) Warmian
Republic ( Kolejka, Lipsky 2008 ) and Slovakia ( Kozová et al. 2009 ). The methodology of carrying out a landscape audit may also be helpful in the preparation of other studies related to landscape protection and landscaping, e.g. environmental plans for protectedareas such as national parks or landscape parks ( Gorzym-Wilkowski 2016 ). National parks are created in areas with natural landscapes, whereas landscape parks concern mainly harmonious natural-cultural landscapes ( Chmielewski et al. 2015 ). This second form of conservation is also created to protect the