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events and processes in the lives of tidal Marsh Sparrows . Doct. Diss. Paper 877. University of Connecticut, 1–203. Canal, D., Jovani, R., Potti, J. 2012. Multiple mating opportunities boost protandry in a pied fl ycatcher population. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology , 66 (1), 67–76. Christidis, L. et al. 2018. The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, version 4.1 (Downloadable checklist). ( https://www.howardandmoore.org ). Coppack, T., Tøttrup, A. P., Spottiswoode, C. 2006. Degree of protandry reflects level of extrapair paternity in

annonated list of the birds of Hungary. – MME Birdlife Hungary, Budapest, p. 199. (in Hungarian with English Summary) Harnos, A., Nóra, Á., Kovács, Sz., Lang, Zs. & Csörgő, T. 2015. Increasing protandry in the spring migration of the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in Central Europe. – Journal of Ornithology 156(2): 543–546. DOI 10.1007/s10336-014-1148-3 Huntley, B., Green, R. E., Collingham, Y. C. & Willis, S. G. 2007. A climatic atlas of European breeding birds. – Barcelona, Lynx Edicions, pp. 521 Hüppop, O. & Hüppop, K. 2002. North Atlantic Oscillation and

Abstract

This study, conducted in 2008 and 2012 - 2013, evaluated the flowering pattern (seasonal and diurnal), the abundance of flowering, nectar, and pollen yield, and insect visitor activity for Corydalis solida (L.) Clairv. and C. cava Schweig. et Koerte. The populations occur in the ground layer of a deciduous forest (Fagetalia ordo, Querco-Fagetea class) in a natural gorge within the current area of the UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin, Poland (51° 16’ N, 22° 30’ E). The phenology of Corydalis species showed distinct year-to-year plasticity (e.g., blooming period in March - April or in April - May; duration 18 - 42 days). The most intensive flower opening was noted in the early morning hours (85 - 90% of daily openings occurred between 6.00 and 10.00 h, GMT +2 h). The average sugar yield was similar at 4.6 kg/ha (C. cava) and 5.2 kg/ha (C. solida), but the average pollen production differed and reached 2.1 kg/ha (C. cava) and 4.1 kg/ha (C. solida). The flower-visitor interaction in Corydalis species involved both biological (early pattern of diurnal flowering, protandry, pollen presentation at the moment of anthesis) and morphological (nectar hidden in deep spur) features. Apis mellifera foragers predominated on both Corydalis species (mean of total visitors, 68.0% to C. solida; 62.5% to C. cava) and foraged mainly for pollen (82% of foragers), while bumblebee queens (mean of total visitors, 32.0% to C. solida; 37.5% to C. cava) collected mainly nectar (68.0% of foragers).

Fowler, J. & Cohen, L. 1996. Statistics for ornithologists. – British Trust for Ornithology, pp. 155 Freedman, D., Pisani, R. & Purves, R. 2007. Statistics. 4 th ed. – W. W. Norton and Company, inc. New York, pp. 697 Greenwood, J. J. D. 2009. 100 years of ringing in Britain and Ireland. – Ringing & Migration 24(3): 147–153. DOI: 10.1080/03078698.2009.9674385 Harnos, A., Ágh, N., Kovács, Sz., Lang, Zs. & Csörgő, T. 2015a Increasing protandry in the spring migration of the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in Central Europe. – Journal of Ornithology 156(2): 543

Hungarica 23(2): 163–188. DOI: 10.1515/orhu-2015-0018 Harnos, A., Lang, Zs., Fehérvári, P. & Csörgő, T. 2015b Sex and age dependent migration phenology of the Pied Flycatcher in a stopover site in the Carpathian Basin. – Ornis Hungarica 23(2): 10–19. DOI: 10.1515/orhu-2015-0010 Harnos, A., Nóra, Á., Kovács, Sz., Lang, Zs. & Csörgő, T. 2015c Increasing protandry in the spring migration of the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in Central Europe. – Journal of Ornithology 156(2): 543–546. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-014-1148-3 Hromádko, M. 2008. Lejsek černohlavý, European Pied

., Lang, Zs. & Csörgő, T. 2015a Increasing protandry in the spring migration of the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in Central Europe. – Journal of Ornithology 156(2): 543–546. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-014-1148-3 Harnos, A., Csörgő, T. & Fehérvári, P. 2016a Hitchhikers’ guide to analysing bird ringing data. Part 2. – Ornis Hungarica 24(1): 172–181. DOI: 10.1515/orhu-2016-0010 Harnos, A. & Csörgő, T. 2011. Ivarmeghatározás biometriai adatok alapján – esettanulmány a csilpcsalpfüzikére [Sex determination based on biometrical data – a case study for the Chiffchaffs

(3): 287–299. DOI: 10.1111/pbr.12473 . Colombo N. Galmarini C.R. 2017 The use of genetic, manual and chemical methods to control pollination in vegetable hybrid seed production: a review Plant Breeding 136 3 287 299 10.1111/pbr.12473 Currah L., Ockendon D.J. 1978. Protandry and the sequence of flower opening in the onion ( Allium cepa L.). New Phytologist 81(2): 419–428. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1978.tb02647.x . Currah L. Ockendon D.J. 1978 Protandry and the sequence of flower opening in the onion ( Allium cepa L.) New Phytologist 81 2 419 428 10.1111/j.1469