Propylene oxide polymerization in the presence of layered double hydroxides with different concentration of basic sites on their surface has been studied. It is shown that the polymerization can be catalyzed by both basic and acidic sites. On the basis of kinetic experiments the mechanisms of reaction undergoing were proposed.
Jerzy Myszkowski, Eugeniusz Milchert, Waldemar Paździoch and Robert Pełech
Formation of environmentally friendly chloroorganic compounds technology by sewage and by-products utilization
The processes presented in the study enables the separation and disposal of the chloroorganic compounds as by-products from the vinyl chloride plant by using the dichlorethane method and also from the production of propylene oxide by the chlorohydrine method. The integrated purification method of steam stripping and adsorption onto activated carbon allows a complete removal and recovery of the chloroorganic compounds from waste water. Waste distillation fraction is formed during the production of vinyl chloride. 1,1,2-trichloroethane separated from the above fraction, can be processed to vinylidene chloride and further to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. 2,3-Dichloropropene, 2-chloroallyl alcohol, 2-chloroallylamine, 2-chlorothioallyl alcohol or bis(2-chloroallylamine) can be obtained from 1,2,3-trichloropropane. In the propylene oxide plant the waste 1,2-dichloropropane is formed, which can be ammonolysed to 1,2-diaminopropane or used for the production of β-methyltaurine. Other chloroorganic compounds are subjected to chlorinolysis which results in the following compounds: perchloroethylene, tetrachloromethane, hexachloroethane, haxachlorobutadiene and hexachlorobenzene. The substitution of the milk of lime by the soda lye solution during the saponification of chlorohydrine eliminates the formation of the CaCl2 waste.
Soft-templating synthesis of nanoporous carbons with incorporated alumina nanoparticles
Soft-templated microporous-mesoporous carbons with embedded alumina nanoparticles were synthesized using resorcinol and formaldehyde as carbon precursors, different inorganic acids as a catalyst and poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymer as a soft template. The carbons studied have very good adsorption properties such as high specific surface area, uniform pore size distribution and a large total pore volume. The choice of catalyst seems to play an important role for the incorporation of aluminum species to the carbon framework, which after thermal treatment form aluminum oxide nanoparticles. This simple approach seems to be very promising for the design of carbon-based materials for a broad range of applications.
A new method of preparation of multifunctional oligoetherols containing carbazole ring is presented. The oligoetherols were obtained in the reaction of 9-(2,3-epoxypropyl)carbazole with sorbitol and oxiranes like ethylene and propylene oxide. The structure of obtained oligoetherols was determined by IR, H-NMR and MALDI-ToF spectroscopies. Physical properties of the products render them good candidates for preparing polyurethane foams. The foams were obtained and their properties were examined. It has been found that the foams are rigid at room temperature and their apparent density was 50–70 kg/m3. The water uptake was low, maximum to 6.5 mass%. Obtained foams have high thermal resistance. Dynamic thermal analysis of these foams showed that 5% mass loss was initiated at 250–300°C, while temperature of 50% mass loss was 370–404°C. Concomitantly the increase of compression strength was observed.
Jerzy Myszkowski, Eugeniusz Milchert, Marcin Bartkowiak and Robert Pełech
Utilization of waste chloroorganic compounds
Efficient methods of utilization of waste chloroorganic compounds coming from waste water and the waste streams formed e.g. in the production of vinyl chloride by dichloroethane method and in the production of propylene oxide by chlorohydrin method have been presented. First the separation of chloroorganic wastes by the adsorption methods has been described in the article. Three valuable methods of chlorocompounds utilization have been then discussed. The first one is isomerization of 1,1,2-trichloroethane to 1,1,1-trichloroethane as the valuable product with less toxicity than a substrate. The second method is ammonolysis of waste 1,2-dichloropropane and 1,2,3-trichloropropane. The third described method is chlorolysis. This method can be used for the utilization of all types of waste chloroorganics.
Grzegorz Lewandowski, Marcin Bartkowiak and Eugeniusz Milchert
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