Mana Taweevisit, Somboon Keelawat and Paul Scott Thorner
Background: Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a highly malignant tumor with an endemic distribution. Several histologic parameters have been studied to provide prognostic information for patient management. Both proliferation index and microvascular density are commonly determined on such tumors, but the relationship between these two parameters has not been studied fully. Objectives: Determine the association between microvascular density and cellular proliferation in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: A series of 60 cases were studied in patients of Southeast Asian origin. Cellular proliferation was determined using Ki67 immunostaining, and vessel proliferation using CD31 immunostaining in terms of areas of increased staining (‘hot spots’). Ki67 results were scored on a scale of 0-4+ and CD31 results as a microvascular density/mm2. Results: The mean of the microvascular density was 22/mm2 in the Ki67-negative group (25 cases). In the Ki67- positive group (35 cases), the mean was 35/mm2. The difference between the positive and negative group was statistically significant (p <0.001). Microvascular density significantly increased as the Ki67 score increased (p<0.001). However, the ‘hot spots’ for microvascular density in tissue sections did not correspond to areas of increased cellular proliferation. Conclusion: Pathologists usually determine only one of these two prognostic factors when dealing with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The proliferation index is suggested because it is easier to perform and can be done on small biopsies not to contain enough surface area for microvascular density determination.
The potential genotoxic/cytotoxic effect of epoxiconazole was evaluated by means of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) following the 24 and 48 h in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to epoxiconazole at concentrations of: 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg. ml–1. Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), used as an epoxiconazole solvent, was used as a negative control and mitomycine (MMC) as a positive control. After the 24-hour exposure, we failed to observe a significant increase in SCE frequencies in comparison with the negative control, however, the concentrations of 10—100 μg.ml–1 caused a significant decrease in the proliferation index (PI; P < 0.001). Also, the 48-hour exposure produced no significant alterations in the SCE frequencies in comparison with the control. At epoxiconazole concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 μg.ml–1 we recorded a moderate to strong, dose-dependent inhibition of PI (P < 0.05; P < 0.01; P < 0.001), while at the highest dose (100 μg.ml–1) the reduction in PI compared to the control was less pronounced (P < 0.05). The reduction in PI at the concentration range of 10—100 μg.ml–1 depended on the number of cells in the M1, M2 and M3 phases of the cell cycle per total number of 100 evaluated metaphases. Our results indicated a significant cytotoxic or cytostatic effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.
P53 is important for cell cycle regulation, and its overexpression is seen in malignant tumors. We examined correlation between p53 expression and cell proliferation, and its role in the pathogenesis of keratinocyte skin tumors. We used biopsies from patients with squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and keratoacanthoma. We examined crosssections stained with HE and using anti-cytokeratin, antip53 and anti-Ki67 antibodies.
Expression of p53 is found in 87, 85% of SCC, in 83. 3% of AK and 13. 4% KA. The high index of p53 expression was higher in SCC and AK compared to KA. We also observed a positive correlation between the expression of p53 and localization of the tumors. The largest proportion of subjects with AK and SCC has a high index of p53 expression on photoexposed region. We also observed that p53 expression correlates with age whereby in AK p53 expression increases with age. The high index of proliferation is most frequent in SCC and KA. Also at AK we found a strong correlation between a moderate proliferation index and tumor localization in photoexposed region. Between the proliferation index and p53 expression we observed a significant positive correlation only in SCC.
Proliferation index and the expression of p53 are useful for the differentiation of precursor keratinocyte lesions and skin carcinoma. High p53 expression has been associated with the aging and significantly correlates with the exposure to UV radiation in SCC and AK. High expression of p53 in AK and SCC supports the importance of this oncoprotein in carcinogenesis of the skin.
histologically benign intracranial meningioma: late recurrence rate and factors predicting recurrence in 657 patients. A mutivariate analysis. Surg Neurol 1986; 26: 461-9.
Franko A, Holjar-Erlic I, Miletic D. Lateral ventricle epidermoid. Radiol Oncol 2008; 42: 66-8.
Strojan P. Role of radiotherapy in melanoma management. Radiol Oncol 2010; 44: 1-12.
Torp SH, Lindboe CF, Gronberg BH, Lydersen S, Sundstrom S. Prognostic significance of Ki-67/MIB-1 proliferationindex in meningiomas. Clin
Jaouad El Asslouj, Loubna Amahdar, Kamal Glouib, Sanae Kholtei, Namira El Amrani Paaza, Luc Verschaeve and Abderraouf Hilali
In Vitro Genotoxicity of Wastewaters from the Town of Settat, Morocco
In recent years, the town of Settat has seen a considerable industrial growth, which has resulted in increased environmental pollution. This includes pollution by household and industrial wastewaters, which are released into the Boumoussa River without any preliminary treatment. The river valley crosses the community of Mzamza 8 km to the north of the town. Years of drought forced members of the community to use this polluted ground water for irrigation and put themselves and the environment at risk.
The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and metal profile of Settat wastewaters and to assess their impact on the water table. The second objective was to investigate the genotoxic potential of wastewater on human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro, using the micronucleus test and cellular proliferation index.
This study demonstrated significant pollution of Boumoussa valley groundwater and of the local wells. Sampled water induced a clear increase in the frequency of micronucleated cells and a lower cell proliferation in human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro.
In Vitro Genotoxicity of Settat Town Landfill Leachate, Morocco
With the increasing use of landfill sites, leachates produced by uncontrolled waste disposal have became a serious threat for the aquatic environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of leachate and of well water sampled close to the town of Settat in Morocco using the micronucleus test and proliferation kinetics of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. We also analysed a number of physical and chemical parameters, including pH, % O2, chemical oxygen demand (COD), HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, and conductivity.
The analysis showed much higher levels of nearly all parameters than the Moroccan standard. Increased micronucleus frequencies were also found for both leachate and well water. Preliminary results indicate that both types of water are genotoxic and pose environmental and human health risk.
Adem Karaman, Irmak Durur-Subasi, Fatih Alper, Omer Araz, Mahmut Subasi, Elif Demirci, Mevlut Albayrak, Gökhan Polat, Metin Akgun and Nevzat Karabulut
in prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer 2013: 2013: 717080.
17. Kobayashi S, Koga F, Kajino K, Yoshita S, Ishii C, Tanaka H, et al. Apparent diffusion coefficient value reflects invasive and proliferative potential of bladder cancer. J Magn Reson Imaging 2014; 39: 172-8.
18. Tang Y, Dundamadappa SK, Thangasamy S, Flood T, Moser R, Smith T, et al. Correlation of apparent diffusion coefficient with Ki-67 proliferationindex in grading meningioma. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2014; 202: 1303-8.
19. Martin B, Paesmans M, Mascaux C, Berghmans T
A 15 year old female African lion (Panthera leo) was necropsied after its sudden death. The necropsy showed a mammary gland lesion measuring 10 cm in diameter and numerous white nodules with variable size in the liver, spleen, uterus, lungs and the heart. The histopathological examination showed that the neoplastic formation in the mammary region was a simple tubular carcinoma with metastases on the other organs. Upon immunohistochemical examination, the neoplastic cells expressed cytokeratins while the stroma of the tumour expressed vimentin. The proliferation index Ki-67 was moderate. Based on the macroscopic, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, the neoplasia was diagnosed as a simple tubular mammary carcinoma.
Z. Pánti, R. Ene, M. Nica, M. Popa, M. Pleniceanu, M. Cîrstoiu and C. Cîrstoiu
In the last decades, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has shown an important role in tumor differential diagnosis and has proven its prognostic role. Due to the various histological subtypes of primary malignant bone tumors, its role will be more important in the future. Based on recent studies, tumor growth, cell mobility, and metastases strongly correlate to the survival of these patients. An increased number of specific IHC markers have been used to determine the aggressiveness of the metastatic capacity of these tumors in enhancing early specific oncological therapies. This study presents 15 cases of primary malignant bone tumors, over a period of 4 years (2014-2018), from the Orthopedics and Traumatology Department of the University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, where we evaluated the proliferation index using Ki67 IHC marker, tissue remodelation, the presence of necrosis in osteosarcoma cases in which chemotherapy was applied, and the aspect of the cytoskeleton with vimentin. Besides the histological aspect, we evaluated the tumor site, invasion and extension to the surrounding tissues (Computer Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) and vascularization with angiography, all these properties having an important prognostic role. Our findings were similar to other research papers in literature; showing that a fast growing and high proliferation index with increased cell mobility has a worse prognosis. Pulmonary metastases occurred in a relative short time in high-grade osteosarcomas, despite the chemotherapy, and multiple metastases were present at 6 months in a dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma case, in which the high-grade sarcoma was an osteosarcoma. Based on the literature, we also think that some specific markers might have multiple roles regarding the tumor growth local invasion and metastasis.
Ingrida Mazeikiene, Darius Kviklys, Jurate Brone Siksnianiene, Dainius Zinkus and Vidmantas Stanys
Prunus necrotic ring spot ilarvirus (PNRSV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot trichovirus (ACLSV) are common in plum orchards. The aim of the study was to obtain virus-free planting material of Prunus domestica L. by chemotherapy in vitro. Ribavirin at concentrations of 10 to 50 mg·l−1 was added to Murashige–Skoog (MS) nutrition medium for virus eradication from microshoots. After a two-week period of chemotherapy, meristems were subcultured monthly on MS medium and proliferation index of shoots was estimated. Microshoots were retested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for presence of virus. At lowest concentrations of 10 mg·l−1 ribavirin was entirely ineffective for ACLSV and 10 to 30 mg·l−1 was ineffective for PNRSV elimination. Ribavirin concentrations of 40 and 50 mg·l−1 destroyed both pathogens. However, at higher concentrations of 40 and 50 mg·l−1 ribavirin exhibited some signs of phytotoxicity on microshoots in the first sub-cultivation period. In order to test the genetic stability of the microplants after chemotherapy the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) method was applied. Plant genome stability in ‘Magna Glauca’ at concentrations of 40 mg·l−1 was damaged, as the presence of polymorphic AFLP markers were observed.