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The use of cartographic sources and methods are the basic tools of historical geography. One of the main research trends in this field is the analysis of the spatial layout and number of old settlement units. The confrontation of maps with historical data allows the drawing of a town’s area at a certain time to be studied. The retrogression (R) and progression (P) methods that are currently used are imperfect and the model created (map) is usually incomplete and its reliability is limited. In the author’s opinion, the joining of retrogression and progression (a new method; combined – K)1 increases the quality of cartographic reconstruction of natural and cultural landscapes. The use of basic mathematical methods from the scope of set operations means the component reliability of the researched cartographic model can be varied because the common part of the retrogression and progression cartographic model represents mutual verification of source data. Quantitative effectiveness assessments of retrogression (R), progression (P) and the combined method (K) can be made for countable elements (e.g. buildings). As part of the conducted study, the effectiveness of separate methods was calculated: R = 76% for retrogression, P = 59% for progression and K = R ∪ P = 85% for the combined method. The mutual verification of the methods (R ∩ P) included 45% of residential buildings. The author describes the proposition of a new method and the course of verification research.
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This study assessed the progression of Pb, Cd and Cr concentrations in plastic components (PCs) and printed wiring boards (PWBs) of 59 end-of-life (EoL) mobile phones (MPs) produced between 2000 and 2015 by two leading original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) patronized by Nigerians. This was done to study the behavior of OEMs in complying with some widely acceptable regulations. Metals in PCs and PWBs of MPs were extracted following EPA 3050B method and extracts were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. Furthermore, Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test was conducted on selected samples to assess metal leachability in landfill conditions. Summary of results (mg/kg) for PCs and PWBs for MPs produced by OEM 1 and OEM 2 in brackets ranged thus: PCs, Pb: 5.00 –195 (LOD-1750), Cr: LOD-6050 (LOD-2170) and Cd: LOD-1.00 (LOD-5.75) while PWBs, Pb:129-9750 (5.00-12125), Cr: LOD-5488 (LOD-4000) and Cd: LOD-1.00 (0.25-1.00). There were no regular trends for all metals for both OEMs. Results suggest that a greater percentage of MPs produced till 2015 contained Pb and Cr higher than RoHS and TTLC limits. Furthermore, 50% of TCLP extracts contain Pb higher than EPA limit of 5 mg/L. Therefore, EoL MPs arising in Nigeria should be handled as hazardous materials.
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