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Care Med. 2013; 41 (10):2464-5. 16. ABIDI K., BELAYACHI J., DERRAS Y., KHAYARI M.E., DENDANE T., MADANI N., et al . Eosinopenia, an early marker of increased mortality in critically ill medical patients . Intensive Care Med. 2011; 37 (7):1136-42. 17. TERRADAS R., GRAU S., BLANCH J., RIU M., SABALLS P., CASTELLS X., et al . Eosinophil count and neutrophillymphocyte count ratio as prognostic markers in patients with bacteremia: a retrospective cohort study . PLoS One. 2012; 7 (8):e42860. 18. MERINO C.A., MARTINEZ F.T., CARDEMIL F., RODRIGUEZ J.R. Absolute

, Sonobe H, Okuyama T. Immunohistochemical study on the distribution of and alpha and beta subunits of S100 protein in human neoplasm and normal tissues. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol. 1984;45:385-396. 28. Haimoto H, Hosoda S, Kato K. Differential distribution of immunoreactive S100B and S100alpha and beta proteins in normal non-nervous human tissues. Lab Invest. 1987;57:489- 498. 29. Thorngren-Jerneck K, Alling C, Herbst A, Amer-Wahlin I, Marsal K. S100 protein in serum as a prognostic marker for cerebral injury in term newborn infants with hypoxic


In acute pancreatitis some prognostic scores have been suggested, based on clinical, laboratory and radiological criteria. The most popular are: Ranson score, APACHE II score and CT severity index (CTSI). The trend is to find a prognostic marker that is easy to use, cheap, and reproductible. Recently, the increase of the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has drawn attention. Material and Methods: From January 2012 to April 2014, a group of 64 patients, admitted to the Clinical Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care and the Surgical Departments of the SCJU Sibiu, with the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis, were included in this observational prospective study. The cut-off values, the specificity and sensitivity of the prognostic scores were calculated using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis curves. Results: At a cut-off value of 12 mm Hg IAP max has a sensitivity of 0,75, similar to Ranson score at 48 h (0.72 at a cut-off value 3) and CTSI (0,73 at a cut-off value 4). Better results are just for APACHE II score at 24 h (0,88 at a cut-off value 8). IAP max has a specificity of 0,88, simillary to CTSI (0,83) and APACHE II score (0,82). Conclusions: In our study maximum IAP could be correlated with prognostic markers for severe evolution in acute pancreatitis.


Background: The proteins p16, p53, Bcl-2, and Bax are important cell cycle and apoptotic regulators involved in carcinogenesis and found to have prognostic significance in various cancers. However, the data for squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity (OSCC) and of oropharynx (OPSCC) are conflicting.

Objective: We sought to determine if expression of p16, p53, Bcl-2, and Bax expression are associated with 5-year overall survival (OS) of patients with OSCC and OPSCC.

Methods: One-hundred thirty-seven cases of OSCC and 140 cases of OPSCC diagnosed from January 2002 to December 2004 at Songklanagrind Hospital, Songkhla, Thailand, were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model for 5-year OS in relation to immunohistochemical detection of Bcl-2, Bax, p53, and p16 proteins.

Results: The frequencies of p16, p53, Bcl-2, and Bax expression in OSCC were 13%, 45%, 4%, and 66%, and in OPSCC were 18%, 53%, 22%, and 75%, respectively. In univariate analysis, clinical variables including T stage, N stage and treatment were significantly associated with survival. In multivariate Cox regression, Bax overexpression was significantly associated with poor survival both in OSCC (HR 1.77, 95% CI 1.04-3.01) and in OPSCC (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.00-4.85). We found no significant association of p16, Bcl-2, and p53 expression with survival.

Conclusion: The expression pattern of p16, p53, Bcl-2, and Bax are similar in OSCC and OPSCC. Only Bax expression has prognostic significance for both tumor sites.


Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a very common cause of mortality and morbidity. The distinction between infected and non-infected DFU remains a very challenging task for clinicians in everyday practice. Even when infection is documented, the spectrum of diabetic foot infection is wide, ranging from cellulitis and soft tissue infection to osteomyelitis. Procalcitonin (PCT), a well-established sepsis biomarker, has been used in the diagnosis of several infections including osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes mellitus. This review gathers and presents all the relevant data, up until now, regarding the use of PCT as an assessment tool in diabetic patients with foot infection. Current evidence suggests that PCT levels could aid clinicians in distinguishing infected from non-infected DFUs as well as in the distinction between soft tissue infection and bone involvement, but further and larger studies are warranted to confirm these findings.


Introduction. Circulating autoantibodies against phospholipase A2 receptor (anti-PLA2R) are recognized as key elements in the pathogenesis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy. In current clinical practice, they are increasingly gaining attention as novel tools for diagnosis and disease monitoring. We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic utility of anti-PLA2R antibody measurements in Greek patients with biopsy-proven membranous nephropathy.

Methods. Anti-PLA2R levels were measured in serum samples from 33 patients at diagnosis using ELISA and were associated with treatment outcome. Moreover, serial anti-PLA2R measurements were performed in 15 patients under different clinical conditions and level alterations were correlated with disease activity.

Results. Positive anti-PLA2R antibodies at diagnosis were found in 16 of 33 patients (48.5%). Anti-PLA2R levels were independently associated with the achievement of complete remission of nephrotic syndrome after immunosuppressive treatment compared to partial remission (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.265, 95%CI -0.019 to -0.0003). Higher detectable antibody levels at diagnosis were correlated with higher proteinuria levels (r = 0.813, p = 0.0001, 95%CI 0.532 to 0.933) and lower eGFR at the end of follow-up (r = -0.634, p = 0.0083, 95%CI -0.86 to -0.202). Serial antibody measurements during follow-up showed that anti-PLA2R titers were significantly reduced at the end of treatment after complete remission was achieved, remained low under sustained clinical remission, and increased during relapse.

Conclusions. Our findings confirm the usefulness of anti-PLA2R measurements in the diagnosis of idiopathic membranous nephropathy. Low levels of anti-PLA2R antibodies at diagnosis are predictive of complete remission of nephrotic syndrome following immunosuppressive treatment. Serial anti-PLA2R measurements correlate well with clinical status throughout the follow-up period and could be used routinely for monitoring of disease activity and treatment planning.

in tumours resistant to conventional systemic therapy and radiotherapy. 17 - 19 Recent reports also suggest that SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 are potential diagnostic and prognostic markers in lung cancer. 20 - 27 Moreover, as indicated by a recent publications 28 , 29 , SOX2 is a commonly activated tumour oncogene that activates ACT 28 and EGFR 29 signalling pathways in human cancers, altogether indicating its complex biological role in cell faith. Recent studies mainly conduced in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after radical surgical therapy

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process. Arthritis Res. 2000; 2: 303-314. Pekova S, Markova J, Pajer P, Dvorak M, Cetkovsky, P, Schwarz J. Touch-down reverse transcriptase-PCR detection of IgVH rearrangement and Sybr-green-based real-time RT-PCR quantitation of minimal residual disease in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Mol Diagn. 2005; 9: 23-34. Marasca R, Maffei R, Morselli M, Zucchini P, Castelli I, et al. Immunoglobulin mutational status detected through single-round amplification of partial VH region represents a good prognostic marker for clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic

: T4 tumours, bowel perforation, extension of surgical lymphadenectomy, inadequate pathological sampling of lymph nodes and poor tumour differentiation grade. Further negative prognostic markers included in one or two sets of guidelines are: bowel obstruction, lymphovascular invasion and/or perineural invasion and indeterminate or positive margins. Consensus on them has not been reached yet. There is no clear message regarding adjuvant chemotherapy patient selection in stage II CRC. 11 – 13 Although stage I and early stage II CRC are prognostically very favourable