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DOKUMENTACJI [CHANCELLERY OF THE SENATE, ANALYSES AND DOCUMENTATION OFFICE], OT-625, listopad [November] 2013, Zawody zaufania publicznego, zawody regulowane oraz wolne zawody. Geneza, funkcjonowanie i aktualne problemy [Professions of Public Trust, Regulated Professions and the Liberal Professions. Origin, Functioning and Current Issues]. [online], [Retrieved: April 13, 2014]. Available at: KONSTYTUCJA RP [CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF POLAND]. [online], [Retrieved: April 13, 2014]. Available at


Physiotherapy is a discipline of clinical medicine, using its own diagnostic and therapeutic methods, including the treatment of movement and physical stimuli. The new legal regulations resulting from the Act of 25 September 2015 on the Profession of Physiotherapy have granted a special professional status to this group of specialists, what results from the fact that it is recognized as an independent medical profession. It should be noted, however, that the introduced law, although expected for many years, did not stabilize the legal situation of this professional group until the end. There are still doubts of a juridical nature which make it difficult to provide unambiguous answers to the basic questions regarding the legal status of physiotherapists as persons performing an independent medical profession. This publication, referring to the applicable statutory regulations and views presented in the legal doctrine, analyzes the current legal status, indicates the weaknesses of the adopted legislative solutions and avoids the changes.

. Journal of Laws item 599. 17. Journal of Laws item 1217. 18. Fiutak A, Miaskowska-Daszkiewicz K, Pyziak-Kowalska K, Jacek A. Zawody w ochronie zdrowia. Wymogi kwalifikacyjne i obowiązki zawodowe, zasady zatrudniania i wynagradzania. Warszawa: C.H. Beck; 2014. Passim. 19. Constitution of the Republic of Poland of April 2, 1997, Journal of Laws of 1997 No. 78, item 483, as amended. 20. Consolidated text Journal of Laws of 2017 item 1904, as amended. 21. Cf.: in particular, the view of P. Sarnecki, according to whom “the professions of public trust are those that


A midwife is an independent medical profession regulated by law. It is treated as a mission, a profession of public trust. The independence of midwife expresses in the professional activities which are performed in accordance with professional competences. Moreover, it is a universal feature of the midwife profession. International and national regulations are important in process of shaping the legal status of the midwife profession. Due to its nature, this profession requires from the midwives continuous, lifelong learning and professional improvement. National and European legislation on midwife profession indicates professional functions which are characteristic for this profession. Knowledge of professional legislation and its conscious application in professional practice is a basic obligation in the midwife’s practice. Lack of knowledge in this regard has serious legal and moral consequences, as well as might pose a risk to the patient safety. This study contains an analysis of the legislation that determine the professional functions of midwives and influence the rules of the professional performance for midwifery profession.


Due to the commonly perceived need to specialize in one professional activity, the role of education is increasing. This includes accounting specializations which are important as professions of public trust. In connection with such expectations, the role of education among professional groups of accounting professionals at all levels is increasing. The article presents the educational requirements for the professional specialization on accounting against the IFAC International Education Standards and in the context of the deregulation of the accountancy professions in Poland. As a solution to the problems of appropriate education, the role of the Accountants Association in Poland (AAP) was pointed out, based on the courses provided by it, aimed at not only improving the qualifications of the individuals who are involved in accounting professionally, but also on the supporting ethics. The courses taught were analyzed in across-section of their participants in the years 2013-2016. The method adopted to achieve the intended purpose was the analysis of the available literature, the laws in force and the sources provided by the AAP. On the basis of the research, it was found that despite the absence of mandatory professional certification for accounting and bookkeeping, the professionals in this area do see the need for continuous education and take diverse action to raise the quality of the services they provide.


Introduction. Nursing is a profession of public trust with a fairly high position in various rankings examining the prestige of professions.

Aim. Analysis of published research results on the image of nurses and nursing in Poland in the media and in the opinion of various social groups.

Material and methods. A systematic review of Polish scientific literature from the years 2010-2017 was undertaken. A multi-stage search process was carried out in accordance with the adopted inclusion criteria, and then articles identified and accepted were subjected to a qualitative analysis.

Results. Searching the Google Scholar database by accepted key words resulted in 10,663 records. After analyzing the titles and abstracts of these papers, 19 articles were subjected to further analysis. As a result of searching journals included in the Arianta database according to established key words, 10 articles were identified, 8 of which were qualified for further analysis. After removing duplicates, 17 articles were approved for the final analysis. Qualitative analysis of the research results published in these papers allowed to distinguish the following categories: an image of nurses and nursing in various social groups, elements of nurses’ image in the media and society, actions aiming at improving the image of nurses and nursing in Poland, changes in the image of nurses and nursing in Poland over the years and the direction of these changes.

Conclusions. The issue of an image of nurses and nursing in the media and in the society has been a frequent subject of research of nurses in Poland in the recent years. These studies concern primarily opinions on the image of nurses and nursing, factors which determine the image of nurses and nursing in Poland, constitutive elements of the image, the possibility of improving the image and people/ institutions responsible for it.

consequences. In: Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe) , 5(1–2), pp. 105–113. DUBIEL-ZIELIŃSKA, P. (2016): Moral dilemmas in professions of public trust and the assumptions of ethics of social consequences. In: Ethics & Bioethics (in Central Europe) , 6(1–2), pp. 19–32. GLUCHMAN, V. (2000): Utilitarizmus G. E. Moora [G. E. Moore’s utilitarianism]. In: G. E. Moore: Etika [ Ethics ], trans. and ed. by V. Gluchman & M. Gluchmanová. Prešov: LIM, pp. 9–23. GLUCHMAN, V. (2001): Teória správneho v etike sociálnych dôsledkov [Theory of right in ethics of social consequences