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Wheat is one of the important cereal crops in Nepal as well as globally. But due to varied climatic and sowing conditions low production has been reported throughout the world including Nepal. Sowing rates are highly correlated to yield and its yield attributing characters. Yield loss has been reported 50-62% under a late sown condition which shows a heavy threat to food security problems. Vijaya is the most recommended varieties under late sown conditions due to its high yield and less threat to late sown conditions. Thus identification and release of varieties suitable under late sown conditions are of the utmost importance. Researches should be accelerated under different agro-ecological zones to study the constraints associated with late sown wheat in Nepal.


Low yield of rice has made reaching self-sufficiency level in Malaysia elusive. So, Malaysia has become a target of rice exporting countries within and outside Asia. To solve this problem, a pre-sowing seed treatment was used as a physiological intervention to alleviate the impeding problems of achieving better growth and yield of Malaysian rice variety MR219. A glass house experiment, which involved the use of solutions of osmotic salts and plant hormones, was used for this investigation. Data on germination percentages, height, number of tillers and productive tillers, tiller efficiency and yield were taken. In both osmopriming and hormonal priming treatments, the highest number of tillers and productive tillers were from pre-germination. The tallest plants from osmopriming were from 150mM treatment, while 50 ppm GA3 had the tallest in hormonal priming. The highest tiller efficiency for osmopriming was from 150mM and and 200mM sodium chloride, while in hormonal priming it was 200 ppm salicylic acid. For yield per panicle in osmopriming, it was 50mM and 100mM magnesium chloride that had the highest, while in hormonal priming it was 200 ppm methyl jasmonate. Finally, the highest grain yield per hill was produced by 200 ppm methyl jasmonate in hormonal priming, while 50Mm magnesium chloride had the highest yield in osmotic priming. So, it is concluded that the use of 200 ppm methyl jasmonate and 50Mm magnesium chloride could be used as potential hormonal priming and osmopriming, respectively, for yield improvement of MR219 rice in Malaysia.


During the 2014-2016 period in Agroecological Center at the Agricultural University - Plovdiv, Bulgaria growth and development of three species of wheat in terms of organic farming had been tracked in order to return the species in the crop rotation, maintenance of biodiversity and receiving of cleaner and healthy products from organic farms. The three species of wheat Triticum monococcum L., Triticum dicoccum Sch, and Triticum spelta L., differ between its rate of growth, development, general and productive tillering. In tillering phase the plants reached 12,3 cm of height for Triticum monococcum L., 15,7 cm for Triticum spelta L. and 19,4 cm for Triticum dicoccum Sch. Triticum monococcum L. and Triticum dicoccum Sch, reached ear formation phase 5 days earlier than Triticum spelta L. The interfacial period of stem elongation - ear formation in them, was about 21 days compared to 25 days for Triticum spelta L.. From ear formation to full maturity inter-phase periods were shorter in Triticum dicoccum Sch., which specifies the species as an early mature (6 days earlier) compared to the other two. After phenophase of stem elongation plants were growing the most intensive and in full ripeness reached a height of 94 cm in Triticum monococcum L., 81,5 cm in Triticum dicoccum Sch. and 82,5 cm in Triticum spelta L.


Water saving rice cultivation is emerging technique to couple with irrigation water shortage due to climate change all over the world. Major issue in these techniques is to compromise yield and quality fatalities because of higher unfilled grain due to nutrients deficiency. Boron fertilization seems to be big management technique to improve rice agriculture due to having imperative role in pollen viability. Thus, a field experiment was conducted to see the impact of boron fertilization both with basal and foliar application methods in water saving rice cultivation systems. Boron, with basal (3 kg borax/acre) and foliar (2% boron) was applied at different growth stages in rice crop grown under various rice cultivation systems; flooded rice, intermittent flooding and drying and aerobic rice. Boron fertilization both with basal and foliar application technique resulted in improved crop performance in all cultivation systems. Rice plants recorded highest yield, yield attributing parameters like productive tillers, panicle length and grain weight with boron fertilization. Quality parameters like sterile kernels, abortive kernels, opaque kernels were significantly reduced with boron fertilization in all rice cultivation systems. Furthermore, normal kernels were enhanced with basal and foliar application of boron nutrition. Likewise, maximum water use efficiency was recorded in foliar application of boron at panicle stage under intermittent flooding and drying condition. Foliar application of boron nutrition at panicle initiation stage was found to be most appropriate in water saving rice cultivation systems.


A field experiment was conducted at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan, to investigate the effect of foliar application of silicon on yield and quality of fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). The research was designed as randomized complete block design (RCBD) having three replications and 6m x 4.5m net plot size was maintained. Foliar applications of silicon’s aqueous solution were used as treatments comprised of control, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.00% silicon solutions. Nursery of 30 days old seedling nursery was transplanted to the plots under aerobic condition and 22.5cm hill to hill distance was maintained. Sodium silicate (20.35% Si) as the source of silicon (soluble in warm water) was used. Fertilizer inputs as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were uniformly applied at the rate of 100, 67, 67 kg ha-1 while all other agronomic practices were kept constant for all the treatments. The data from the field (yield components) as well as lab analysis (quality parameters) was recorded according to the standard procedures. Fisher’s analysis of the variance technique was used for statistical analysis and treatment’s mean differences were compared using least significant difference (LSD) test at 5% probability level. Silicon showed no significant effect on plant height, harvest index, number of kernels and opaque kernels percentage. Silicon (0.50% silicon solution) produced maximum grain diameter and grain protein while silicon @ 1.00% silicon solution resulted maximum in number of productive tillers, straw yield, spike per panicle, 1000 grain weight, paddy yield and grain starch. All others parameters have overlapping results of different silicon levels.

achieved by only the next formed yield component, which is grains ear -1 . For winter wheat, sowing larger seeds resulted in better vegetative development (with faster field emergence and more tillers plant -1 but a less productive tillering – the combination of both resulted in no differences in ears plant -1 between seed sizes) and better reproductive development (with more fertile spikelets ear -1 , grains plant -1 and grain yield plant -1 ) ( Heyland and Scheer, 1984 ). The aim of malting barley production is to produce large grains, which generally have a high