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Mass-produced printed circuit board (PCB) electrodes were used as electrochemical cells to detect the widely-used herbicide glyphosate. Square wave voltammetry (SWV) was used to determine the presence of glyphosate in aqueous Cu(NO3)2 solution. Optimal measurement conditions for the detection of glyphosate with PCB electrodes were found. It was determined that glyphosate was able to soak into the growing plants from the substrate. Glyphosate-contaminated plant juice was distinguished from control samples using the PCB electrode. Glyphosate-contaminated plants were found to have DNA mutations.

:// [14] I. M. Rybakov, N. V. Goryachev, I. I. Kochegarov, A. K. Grishko, S. A. Brostilov, and N. K. Yurkov, “Application of the model of the printed circuit board with regard to the topology of external conductive layers for calculation of the thermal conditions of the printed circuit board,” J. Phys.: Conf. Ser ., vol. 803, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2017. [15] A. V. Dubravin, S. A. Zinkin and D. V. Paschenko, “Formal and conceptual definitions of the hybrid model of distributed computings in networks,” in

Hazardous materials , vol. 168(2-3), pp. 567-590, 2009. [11] J. Kozłowski, W. Mikłasz, D. Lewandowski and H. Czyżyk, “Research on hazardous waste - management part I”, Archives of Waste Management and Environmental Protection , vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 69-76, 2013. [12] J. LaDou. “Printed circuit board industry” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health , vol.209 (3), pp. 211-219, 2006. [13] J. Li, Q. Zhou, Z. Xu, “Real-time monitoring system for improving corona electrostatic separation in the process of recovering waste printed circuit boards”, Waste Manag


This paper deals with pulse signals influenced by loss of energy in high frequency band. Five types of pulses were tested and evaluated under various conditions. Achieved results can be helpful for some specific tasks in signal transmission. An example presents highest frequency of periodic pulse signals processed on printed circuit board.


This paper focuses on the practical aspects of the realisation of Dickson and Fibonacci charge pumps. Standard Dickson charge pump circuit solution and new Fibonacci charge pump implementation are compared. Both charge pumps were designed and then evaluated by LTspice XVII simulations and realised in a discrete form on printed circuit board (PCB). Finally, the key parameters as the output voltage, efficiency, rise time, variable power supply and clock frequency effects were measured.


In this paper, a new non-contact method for detection of impact damage in carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composites with a complementary split-ring resonator sensor is proposed. The resonance frequency is evaluated as an indicator of the presence of damage. The resonator is made on a printed circuit board, and in the experimental setup it is positioned close to the area of interest. Electromagnetic models are built, and from the resonant responses the appropriate frequency range used for the test is determined. The active sensing element in the resonator is found from the analysis of the magnetic field distribution. The parametric study performed shows that a larger frequency change occurs for a wider impacted region, which is of great use for practical applications. The proposed method is validated by the experimental results, where a frequency shift of 65 MHz was observed for a 0.36 mm deep dent.

. “Discussing and Evaluating Green Supply Chain Suppliers: A Case Study of the Printed Circuit Board Industry in China. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering , 26 (2), pp. 56-67. Korenko, M. et al. 2015. Risk analysis at work in manufacturing organization. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis , 63(5), 1493-1497. Knop, K., Ingaldi, M., Smilek-Starczynowska, M. 2017. Reduction of Errors of the Conformity Assessment During the Visual Inspection of Electrical Devices. Advances in Manufacturing . Hamrol A., Ciszak O., Legutko S

]K. A., G. G. Interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Fuzzy Sets and Systems, 31, 1989, 343-9. [16]Li D.-F. A note on “using intuitionistic fuzzy sets for fault-tree analysis on printed circuit board assembly”. Microelectronics Reliability, 48, 2008, 1741. [17]Li D.-F. A ratio ranking method of triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers and its application to MADM problems. Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 60, 2010, 1557-70. [18]Li D.F., Nan J.X., Zhang M.J. A ranking method of triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers and application to decision making

Biomass and Bioenergy, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 460-467. OZAWA, T. 1965. A new method of analyzing thermogravimetric data. In Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1881-1886. PILOYAN, G. O. - RYABCHIKOV, I. D. - NOVIKOVA, O. S. 1966. Determination of activation energies of chemical reactions by differential thermal analysis. In Nature, vol. 212, pp. 1229. QUAN, C. - LI, A. - GAO, N. 2009. Thermogravimetric analysis and kinetic study on large particles of printed circuit board wastes. In Waste Management, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 2353-2360. SBIRRAZZUOLI

Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Motivation In order to design the DC-DC converters – beyond the basic knowledge about their operation – the understanding the interference generation and propa- gation is required, considering the significant increase in switching frequency. The limitation of interference can be done in the early design stage taking into account information about components, their placement and printed circuit board (PCB) layout. Of course, the interference should be filtered by a ded- icated filter, but the more effective and cheaper method to limit