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References Benischek, I., Summer, A., & Zeindl-Steiner, R. (2017). Mathematik Bildungsstandards [Mathematics educational standards]. Wien: G & G. Bisanz, A., Hueber, S., Jambor, E., & Lindner, J. (2020). Social entrepreneurship education in the primary school: Empowering every child with the You th Start Entrepreneurial challenges. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education , 10 (2), In press. BMBF. (2015). Grundsatzerlass zum Unterrichtsprinzip Wirtschafts- und Verbraucher- bzw. Verbraucherinnenbildung [Basic decree on the principle of economic

vasak käsi on paremast osavam [When the left hand is more capable than the right hand]. Tervis [Health], 11, 52-54. Kopietz, G. & Sommer, J. (1999) Kas hädas lastega? [Problems with children?]. Tallinn: Kunst. Koppel, K. (2005) Õpetaja täiendkoolitus [Class teachers, primary teachers and their in-service training]. Haridus [Education], 6/7, 23-25. Kramer, J. (1970) Linkshändigkeit [Left-handedness]. Erscheinungsformen. Solothurn. Kula, P. (2000) Vasakukäeliste algklassiõpilaste toimetulek koolis ja igapäevaelus [Left-handed primary school children

Prevalence of Superficial Fungal Infection in Primary School Children in Ahvaz, Iran

Background: Superficial fungal infections are common in schoolchildren. Superficial fungal diseases such as dermatophytosis and pityriasis versicolor, although not life-threatening, may be particularly distressing for this age group.

Objective: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, clinical types, and causative agents of superficial fungal infections among primary school children in Ahvaz, Iran.

Methods: A total of 2827 randomly selected primary school pupils (aged 6-12) from 14 schools were examined for superficial fungal infections by direct microscopy and culture based laboratory diagnosed methods.

Results: Generally, 13 (0.4%) persons had infections. Out of these, 8 (61.5 %) were male while 5 (38.5%) were female. Seborrheic dermatitis (0.21%) was the most common infection, followed by pityriais veriscolor (0.18%) and tinea capitis (0.07%). The etiological agents of tinea capitis were identified Microsporum canis. Pityriasis versicolor was occurred only on the neck (100%). Seborrheic dermatitis was occurred among 9-to10-years-old pupils.

Conclusion: Our data provide a valuable baseline on which to assess future efforts directed toward the prevention of dermatophytes infections in our epidemiological.

., & Sakuma, H. (2004). Human figure drawing size and body image in preschool children from a self-physique perspective. Perceptual and motor skills , 691–700. Troncone, A. (2014). Problems of “draw-a-person: a quantitative scoring system” as a measure of intelligence. Psychological Reports: Measures & Statistics, 115 (2), 485–498. Vahter, E. (2016). Looking for a possible framework to teach contemporary art in primary school. International Journal of Art & Design Education , 35 (1), 51–67. Varzim, M. (2005). Creativity – stimulus for human development. Kūrybos


This study aims to investigate the discourse in physical education (PE) classes among primary school students in Singapore and reveal the distinctive governing epistemological structure. Eight primary school students were interviewed, and an archaeological analysis based on Foucault’s thoughts and works was employed. The findings of this study provided a deeper understanding of PE discourse and offered a unique perspective on the conditions for such discourse to happen. A Foucauldian approach is thus a useful tool for policymakers when designing the PE curriculum and syllabus.

Social Aspects of Education for Sustainable Development in Primary School in Estonia

The purpose of the article is to analyse the circumstances of applying of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Estonian educational actuality. Empirical part of the study comprehends a comparative content analysis of UNECE strategy of ESD and the chapters of the text of the Estonian National Curriculum valid from 2002. The discussion concentrates on the social aspects of ESD because their significance was pointed out by the experts of ESD. The topic of the article is confined to the issues concerning the primary education, i.e. the grades from 1st to 3rd. Conclusions are made about the opportunities to apply ESD more effectively than at present. Statements of experts on textbooks and curriculum have been taken into account as additional sources besides the documentary analysis.


In this paper, I will reflect on the initial reconnaissance, action, and reflection cycle of my doctoral research, exploring Community Philosophy as a tool for critical parental engagement in a primary school (Elliot, 1991). I will examine how I reflexively engaged with my influence on participants, which then significantly influenced the framing of, and the planning for, the second action research cycle.

The challenges that the initial stages of my research have presented will be considered using Herr and Anderson’s five components of validity (Herr and Anderson, 2014). I then use the four Chronotopes of Research developed by Kamberelis and Dimitriadis (2005) to discuss the implications for my understanding of positioning, authenticity and transformation, and the resultant reframing of my research.

In order to set the context for my research, I begin by giving a brief overview of my own interest in ‘democratic voice’. This is followed by an exploration of the current ‘closing the gap’ discourse in English education (OFSTED, 2013; Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission, 2014; Wilshaw, 2013), to demonstrate how parental engagement has become individualised, lacks democratic voice, and often valorises middle class parents. Hence I will argue that there is a need for a more democratic and collective model of parental engagement, and make a case for justifying Community Philosophy as a possible model.


Recent tendencies in education highlight the need to align the system of general education in Latvia with the tenets of sustainability. In keeping with this broad target orientation, this paper re-examines international and Latvian experiences and perspectives on the application of a holistic approach to the content of primary education. This review of good practice is set against the backdrop of different theories and approaches concerned with the essence and principles of holism. More specifically, the paper addresses the issue of ensuring successful acquisition of musical cultural values in primary school via a holistic approach. In this regard, the latter is construed as movement towards the new that facilitates positive attitudes towards musical cultural values among learners and is both physically and spiritually nurturing. The paper proposes a theoretically and empirically grounded model for the usage of a holistic approach with a view to enabling acquisition of musical cultural values in primary school. The gradual development of the model is traced in the course of theoretical and empirical inquiry, the latter involving a survey and an interview with five experts


Teachers face dilemmas of different kinds in their everyday practice. It is therefore essential that teacher students become aware of the dilemmas they will face in their future profession. By integrating school practice in teacher education programs, students apply theoretical knowledge to classroom situations. In a project at a Swedish university campus, the students worked as teacher candidates one day a week at different primary schools during their first semester. The purposes were to make the teacher education at the campus sustainable by attracting more students, limiting the number of dropouts and improving the quality in the education. In the present study, it is of interest to identify the didactic dilemmas teacher students experience in classrooms with 6 to 12 year-olds. By analysing the students’ written reports, the results indicate that the students’ identified dilemmas relate to classroom management, the lesson content and the establishing of relationships with the children.

Mother Tongue Textbooks and the Possibilities of Creativity Development through Their Use in Mother Tongue Lessons in Early Primary School

Introduction Creativity as one of the most desired contemporary human qualities is closely related to self-expression, but self-expression to self-assessment, self-esteem, and further to self-actualisation. Therefore the early primary school stage becomes especially crucial which involves the development of creative abilities as one of the most fundamental tasks. The article focuses on the early primary text-books in the mother tongue (Latvian, Lithuanian, Estonian, Polish, Ukrainian, Russian) in order to clarify to what extent and exactly what kind of creativity promoting tasks the authors include in them.

Aim of the study The aim is to analyse the mother tongue early primary school text-books of various nationalities in order to establish the number and type of the tasks promoting children's creativity.

Materials and methods Analysis of theoretical literature and the tasks provided by the text-books, a survey of children.

Results Mother tongue early primary school text-books, including Latvian, Lithuanian, Estonian, Polish, Ukrainian and Russian by various authors, were analysed for in accordance with their rating for tasks which foster creativity. The pupils were surveyed about the assigned tasks, and the attitudes of different authors for opportunities of fostering creativity in mother tongue lessons were assessed.

Conclusions In the early primary school stage it is significant to foster children's creativity during mother tongue lessons as such tasks in opposition to boring and monotonous) are fulfilled with greater enthusiasm and pleasure, so they foster self-assessment, development of positive relationships, and faster achievement of teaching/ learning aims.

Some tasks fostering children's creativity are included in mother tongue early primary school text-books of different nationalities. Nevertheless we have to conclude that some authors pay more attention to them than others. Consequently, text-books do not fulfil their function as an idea bank for the teacher, and the teachers have to make great effort to develop creative, exciting and joyful educational experiences.