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The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of factor V Leiden (FVL) polymorphism within the reproductive problems encountered by patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 92 female patients with PCOS and 101 healthy controls were included in the study. Clinical and laboratory parameters were examined. The full history of each patient was taken. Single nucleotide polymorphism rs6025 in F5 was genotyped in PCOS patients and compared to the genotype frequency of the healthy controls. The data were analysed for correlation with infertility and pregnancy loss in PCOS patients. The prevalence of FVL polymorphism was higher, however not significantly, in PCOS patients compared to that of the control group (respectively OR=2.238, 95 % CI 0.777±6.449, p=0.104). The carriers of FVL polymorphism showed a higher rate of primary infertility (30.0% versus 12.5%, OR=3.143, 9 % CI 0.686±14.388, p=0.047) and their total reproductive failure rate was higher (60.5% versus 47.2%, OR=1.819, 95% CI 0.632±9.259, p=0.117). Carriage of FVL polymorphism in PCOS patients is associated with primary infertility and a presumed cause of the further investigations needed to understand the impact of FVL on PCOS. Carriage of FVL polymorphism in PCOS patients is associated with a higher rate of primary infertility, which draws attention to the role of this factor in the aetiology of the PCOS-related subfertility. Further investigations are needed to understand the impact of FVL on PCOS.

References Balamurugesan K, Viswanathan S. Schmidt syndrome presenting as primary infertility. Journal of case Reports 6, 4-7, 2016. Betterle C, Lazzarotto F, Presotto F. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome Type 2: the tip of an iceberg? Clin Exp Immunol 137, 225-233, 2004. Eisenbarth GS, Gottlieb PA. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes. N Engl J Med 350, 2068-2079, 2004. Kahaly GJ. Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes. Eur J Endocrinol 161, 11-20, 2009. Neufeld M, Maclaren N, Blizzard R. Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes. Pediatr Ann 9, 154-162, 1980. Saif A

), and the normal polymorphism CNVs were filtered out. Results Classification Statistics and Clinical Phenotypes of Infertility . One-hundred and thirty of the 324 infertile females had primary infertility, and the average age of infertility was 32.2±4.6, and infertile mean years were 4.3 ± 3.2. There were 194 patients with secondary infertility, with the average age at 34.8 ± 5.7, and the infertile mean years were 3.5 ± 3.2. Primary infertility and secondary infertility showed significant differences in average age and infertile mean years, but there were no

Developing Countries. - Population and Development Review 13 (4): 611-638. DOI: Qadir, Farah; Amna Khalid and Girmay Medhin. 2015. Social Support, Marital Adjustment, and Psychological Distress among Women with Primary Infertility in Pakistan. - Women & Health 55 (4): 432-446. DOI: Qamar, Azher Hameed. 2012. Gendered Aspects of Informal Education in Childhood: Research Reflections from the Rural Punjab, Pakistan. - Academic Research International 2 (1): 383-397. Qamar, Azher Hameed. 2013. Evil

. Materials and Methods Sample Population Initially, 1234 men with primary infertility (the couples never conceived) were recruited from various diagnostic setups, hakeems (Muslim physicians) and private clinics in two cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, for a period of 2 years (2011 and 2012). A cohort of 348 proven fathers (had at least two children), residents of the same area, was also taken as a control group. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria After approval and permission of the concerned authorities, infertile men fulfilling the World Health Organization