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homeowner’s dilemma: Anchoring in residential real estate transactions , Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, vol. 89 HENCLEWSKA L., 2000, Wartość rynkowa, a wartość inwestycyjna nieruchomości, (Market Value and Investment Value of Real Estate), Nieruchomości C. H. Beck, nr 8 HOROWITZ J. L., 1992, The Role Of The List Price In Housing Markets: Theory And An Econometric Model, Journal Of Applied Econometrics, vol. 7 KARASIEWICZ G., 1997, Marketingowe strategie cen ( Marketing Pricing Strategy ), PWE, Warszawa KWIATKOWSKA M., Ceny mieszkań: Deweloperzy

., & Webb J. R. (2013). List price and sales prices of residential properties during booms and busts. Journal of Housing Economics, 22 (1), 1–10. Hui, E. C. M., Joe, T., Wong, Y., & Wong K. T. (2012). Marketing Time and Pricing Strategies. Journal of Real Estate Research, 34 (3), 375-398. Johnson, K. H., Benefield, J. D., & Wiley J.A. (2008). The Probability of Sale for Residential Real Estate. Journal of Housing Research, 16 (2), 131-142. Jud, G. D., Seaks, T. G., & Winkler, D.T. (1996). Time on the Market: The Impact of Residential Brokerage. Journal of Real Estate

budowlanego [Determining profit margins in bidding strategy of a construction enterprise]. Przegląd Budowlany , 6 , 50-53. Mochtar, K., & Arditi, D. (2000) Alternate pricing strategies in construction. Civil Engineering Dimension , 2 (1), 56-64. Moselhi, O., Hegazy, T., & Fazio, P. (1993). DBID: Analogy-based DSS for bidding in construction, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 119 (3), 466-470. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1993)119:3(466) Potts, K. (2008). Construction Cost Management: Learning from Case Studies . Abingdon, Great Bitain: Taylor

Bibliography George Caraiani., International shipments Logistics, Publisher Pro Universitaria, Bucharest 2007; Fedorco L'ubomir, Jakub Hospodka, Airline pricing strategies in the European airline market, University of Pardubice, Czech Republic, 2013; Rosário Macário, José Viegas, Vasco Reis, Impact of low cost operation in the development of Airports and Local Economies, Portugal, 2008; Andrija Vidović, Igor Štimac Damir Vince, Development of business models of low-cost airlines, the International Journal for Traffic and Transport Engineering, 3 (1) / 2013

.2478 / gfkmir-2014-0048 OPEN 51Flashlight / Vol. 3, No. 2, 2011, pp. 50 – 53 / GfK MIR Different Prices in Online and Offl ine Channels: Higher Profi ts or Irritated Customers? Price differentiation has long been recognized as a strategy that companies can use to increase profi ts when consumers’ tastes and valuations of a good price vary. Companies engaging in price differentiation have the opportunity to increase profi ts considerably compared to those which use a uniform pricing strategy. Accordingly, it should be benefi cial for companies to exploit the pos

Mogilner, C. (2008), “Reinforcement versus balance response in sequential choice”, Marketing Letters, Vol. 19, No. 3-4, pp. 229-239. Iriberri, N. and Rey-Biel, P. (2011), “The role of role uncertainty in modified dictator games”, Experimental Economics, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 160-180. Jang, H, and Chu, W. (2012), “Are consumers acting fairly toward companies? an examination of pay-what-you-want pricing”, Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 348-360. Johnson, J.W. and Peng Cui, A. (2013), “To influence or not to influence: external reference price strategies in pay

influence the efficacy of a promotion, both separately and in combination. Depending on the individual shopping orientation, either preexisting or primed, the right cues positively influence shopping baskets and, by extension, also have an influence on sales. » The right cues positively influence the whole shopping basket. « Consistency is beneficial between the positioning strategies that retailers use in order to differentiate themselves, and their price promotional strategies. Retailers such as Wal-Mart use everyday low pricing strategies to promise


In this work we address the problem of optimizing collective profitability in semi-competitive intermediation networks defined as augmented directed acyclic graphs. Network participants are modeled as autonomous agents endowed with private utility functions. We introduce a mathematical optimization model for defining pricing strategies of network participants. We employ welfare economics aiming to maximize the Nash social welfare of the intermediation network. The paper contains mathematical results that theoretically prove the existence of such optimal strategies. We also discuss computational results that we obtained using a nonlinear convex numerical optimization package.


Firms often use a pricing strategy in which they partition the total price of a product and/or service into two or more mandatory components, such as parts and shipping. In this research, we examine how dividing the same total price differently across the components affects customers’ reactions. In a series of studies, we show that customers systematically prefer partitions of the same total price in which the price of low benefit components (e.g., shipping) is lower and the price of high benefit components (e.g., parts) is higher. Thus, for effective pricing, markups on components that consumers believe provide a high degree of benefit should be higher than markups on components that consumers believe provide less benefit


Purpose: This article provides an understanding of international retailers’ successes and failures when expanding in the Polish market. Accordingly, the objectives of this article were to define and identify what are the critical factors of success and failures of international retailers’ strategies while expanding in the Polish market according to the retailers themselves.

Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theory on internationalization compared to how internationalization is experienced and conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts.

Findings: Twenty cases were studied among which were found four successful retailers and two who had failed. Coding of categories highlighted five critical success factors and five critical failure factors. Pricing strategy, necessity of adapting operations to local market, learning by doing, e-commerce and early entry timing appeared as factors of success or at least as “facilitating factors.” Choosing the inappropriate entry method, underestimating competition, developing the retail network and retail environment at a slow pace and not giving enough means of abnegation led to failures in Poland.

Originality: This article contributes to filling two main gaps identified in the literature review. Many different theoretical approaches exist but no conclusive framework has emerged. Besides, most concepts were developed and tested on western European countries and nothing proved adequate to the specific retail landscape of eastern Europeans countries such as Poland.