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Different Prices in Online and Offl ine Channels:
Higher Profi ts or Irritated Customers?
Price differentiation has long been recognized as a
strategy that companies can use to increase profi ts when
consumers’ tastes and valuations of a good price vary.
Companies engaging in price differentiation have the
opportunity to increase profi ts considerably compared to
those which use a uniform pricingstrategy. Accordingly,
it should be benefi cial for companies to exploit the pos
Mogilner, C. (2008), “Reinforcement versus balance response in sequential choice”, Marketing Letters, Vol. 19, No. 3-4, pp. 229-239. Iriberri, N. and Rey-Biel, P. (2011), “The role of role uncertainty in modified dictator games”, Experimental Economics, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 160-180. Jang, H, and Chu, W. (2012), “Are consumers acting fairly toward companies? an examination of pay-what-you-want pricing”, Journal of Macromarketing, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 348-360. Johnson, J.W. and Peng Cui, A. (2013), “To influence or not to influence: external reference pricestrategies in pay
influence the efficacy of a
promotion, both separately and in combination. Depending
on the individual shopping orientation, either preexisting or
primed, the right cues positively influence shopping baskets
and, by extension, also have an influence on sales.
The right cues positively influence
the whole shopping basket.
Consistency is beneficial between the positioning strategies
that retailers use in order to differentiate themselves, and
their price promotional strategies. Retailers such as Wal-Mart
use everyday low pricingstrategies to promise
In this work we address the problem of optimizing collective profitability in semi-competitive intermediation networks defined as augmented directed acyclic graphs. Network participants are modeled as autonomous agents endowed with private utility functions. We introduce a mathematical optimization model for defining pricing strategies of network participants. We employ welfare economics aiming to maximize the Nash social welfare of the intermediation network. The paper contains mathematical results that theoretically prove the existence of such optimal strategies. We also discuss computational results that we obtained using a nonlinear convex numerical optimization package.
Firms often use a pricing strategy in which they partition the total price of a product and/or service into two or more mandatory components, such as parts and shipping. In this research, we examine how dividing the same total price differently across the components affects customers’ reactions. In a series of studies, we show that customers systematically prefer partitions of the same total price in which the price of low benefit components (e.g., shipping) is lower and the price of high benefit components (e.g., parts) is higher. Thus, for effective pricing, markups on components that consumers believe provide a high degree of benefit should be higher than markups on components that consumers believe provide less benefit
Purpose: This article provides an understanding of international retailers’ successes and failures when expanding in the Polish market. Accordingly, the objectives of this article were to define and identify what are the critical factors of success and failures of international retailers’ strategies while expanding in the Polish market according to the retailers themselves.
Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theory on internationalization compared to how internationalization is experienced and conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts.
Findings: Twenty cases were studied among which were found four successful retailers and two who had failed. Coding of categories highlighted five critical success factors and five critical failure factors. Pricing strategy, necessity of adapting operations to local market, learning by doing, e-commerce and early entry timing appeared as factors of success or at least as “facilitating factors.” Choosing the inappropriate entry method, underestimating competition, developing the retail network and retail environment at a slow pace and not giving enough means of abnegation led to failures in Poland.
Originality: This article contributes to filling two main gaps identified in the literature review. Many different theoretical approaches exist but no conclusive framework has emerged. Besides, most concepts were developed and tested on western European countries and nothing proved adequate to the specific retail landscape of eastern Europeans countries such as Poland.