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The article describes occurrence and distribution of Cryptocotyle trematodes in fish in the waters of the Dnipro-Buh estuary and the Black Sea in Mykolaiv and Odesa Region. Study was conducted in 2015-2016. Two trematode species were found in natural waters of these regions: Cryptocotyle cancavum Crepli, 1825 and Cryptocotyle jejuna Nicoll, 1907. Th e latter species has not been previously registered in this region in southern Ukraine. Varying intensity of infection with Cryptocotyle metacercariae was observed in fish of Gobiidae family: Mesogobius batrachocephalus Pallas, 1814, Neogobius melanostomum Pallas, 1814, N. fluviatialis Pallas, 1814. Th e most affected species was N. melanostomum, with the prevalence of infection 59.2 %. Less infected were N. fluviatialis and M. batrachocephalus, with the prevalence of infection 30.4 % and 17 % respectively. The intensity of infection was the highest in N. melanostomum - 211 metacercariae per fish, followed by N. fluviatialis and M. batrachocephalu - 124 and 89 metacercariae respectively. Cryptocotyle was the most prevalent in the Dnipro-Buh estuary (cape Adzhigol, Mykolaiv Region) and much less prevalent in the waters of the Black Sea in Mykolaiv and Odesa Regions. Mean prevalence of infection was 31.4 %.

Prevalence of Infection with Neisseria Gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia Trachomatis in Acute Mucopurulent Cervicitis

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of N. gonorrhoae (NG) and/or C. trachomatis (CT) in acute mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC). The study included 617 non-pregnant women with MPC, who had not been receiving any antimicrobial treatment. The average age of patients was 22.2 years. There were no statistically significant differences according to place of residence, education, and marital status. Samples for laboratory analysis were collected using a routine procedure; NG was identified using the cytochrome oxidase test and Gram staining. CT was isolated on McCoy cell culture and stained with Lugol solution.

NG was isolated in three women (0.8%) and CT in 58 women (9.4%). Fifty-six of the CT-positive patients were nullipara and only two were unipara. All NG-positive patients were also nullipara. The mean number of sexual partners was 2.2 in all study subjects, 2.4 in CT-positive subjects, and 2.9 in NG-positive subjects. Vaginal discharge purity according to Schröder was significantly deteriorated in CT-positive patients (p=0.011). When asked about the use of contraceptives, as many as 32.7% patients answered that they did not use any protection, 39% women used the rhythm method and coitus interruptus, 20% were taking oral contraceptives, 6.1% used mechanical devices, and 1.9% used chemical protection. Previous acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases correlated with MPC (p>0.01).

Our statistical analysis suggests that chlamydial infection significantly reduces the purity of vaginal discharge, which is more pronounced in nulliparae. Pap smear was not specific enough to demonstrate chlamydial infection. In view of the MPC findings, the prevalence of CT and NG infection is low.


A study screening pet animals (dogs, cats, chinchillas, ferrets, guinea pigs, rabbits, primates, reptiles, and hedgehogs) within Moscow city limits for intestinal parasitic diseases has been conducted over a period of 6 years. According to the study, parasitic infections caused by intestinal protozoa are found in pet animals more frequently than by intestinal helminths. Although dogs and cats exhibit the highest level of diversity of intestinal parasite species, in the group of exotic animals, helminth infection are found much less frequently and parasitic fauna is represented mostly by intestinal protozoa with a high percentage of mixed infection. The most widespread helminth infeсtion of dogs and cats is toxocarosis (respectively 2.5 and 5.7 %) and the most widespread protozoan infection is Giardia sp. (9.8 and 4.6 %). Giardia sp. was found in 47.4 % of chinchillas, Cryptosporidium sp. was more frequently found in ferrets (6.55 %), protozoa from the family Trichomonadida was found in guinea pigs (9 %), Eimeria sp. in rabbits (13.9 %), Acanthocephala in primates (15.7 %), and eggs from the generaOxyurida (59 %), along with protozoa from the family Trichomonadida, in reptiles. Capillaria sp. was most prevalent in hedgehogs (33.4 %). Acanthocephala eggs, as well as protozoa from the Giardia and Entamoeba genera, were more frequently found in primates. Parasites common to animals and humans, which may become a source of infection for the latter under certain conditions, have been identified in pet animals.


Enterotoxins produced by Clostridium difficile cause a series of biochemical and immunological manifestations in the cascade leading to alteration of the enterocitus cytoskeleton, intestinal inflammation and diarrhea that can greatly impair the patient’s biological status. The genome of the Clostridium difficile bacterium shows a series of evolutionary adaptations that can give it a high degree of resistance or adaptability to many known pharmacological classes. Changing the diversity of intestinal microbiota induced by the use of antibiotics creates a favorable environment from all points of view for Clostridium difficile spore activity. The theme addresses in an original way but related to the epidemiological studies presented in the literature a correlative aspect between the pathological group and the infection with Clostridium difficile. From the data presented, there is a direct correlation between Clostridium difficile infection and the use of antibiotic therapy as a curative or preventive treatment. Gastrointestinal and neurological pathologies, due to the use of curative but also preventive antibiotic therapy, are at increased risk for the installation of Clostridium difficile infection. The study presented may be a first step in raising awareness of the rational use of antibiotics and avoiding non-assisted community antibiotic therapy.

-sample t test. Results Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) was the only nematode identified as 3 rd stage larvae encysted in mesentery and viscera and as 4 th stage larvae and adults in the digestive tract of whiting Merlangius merlangus collected from Sinop coasts and Balaklava Bay in the Black Sea. Infection parameters of the 690 fish from Sinop and 423 fish from Balaklava Bay were determined ( Table 1 ). Prevalence of infection, mean intensity and mean abundance values in Sinop samples were higher than those in Balaklava Bay samples. Table 1 List of

autonomous province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Arhiv Veterinarske Medicine 7 (1): 11-18. 13. Rodriguez-Vivas, R.I., Albornoz, R.E.F., Bolio, G.M.E. (2005). Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico: seroprevalence, prevalence of infection and associated factors. Vet. Parasitol. 127 (1): 75-79. PMid:15619376 14. Christova, I., Van De Pol, J., Yazar, S., Velo, E., Schouls, L. (2003). Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species, and spotted fever group Rickettsiae in ticks from Southeastern

individuals was 38,547 of 2,761,990 examined. Enterobius vermicularis infected the highest number of individuals followed by Hymenolepis nana , and Ascaris lumbricoides , with other helminths showing lower numbers of cases ( Table 1 ) . Northern and middle Euphrates regions showed lower prevalence of infections with all helminths, compared with the middle and southern regions, which showed a higher prevalence of infections ( Table 2 ) . There were significant differences in infection rates between age groups in this survey for all surveyed helminths ( Table 3 ) . The

Introduction Because of an increased prevalence of infections with resistant Gram-negative bacteria, finding optimal treatment regimens for these cases is one of the major healthcare concerns. Carbapenems were an important treatment option in these cases, but with the growing incidence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains, finding an appropriate treatment course has become an issue ( 1 ). Due to the global importance of drug resistance, in 2018, WHO recommends the development of novel antibiotics against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii


The article describes occurrence and distribution of Eustrongylides trematodes in fish in the waters of the Dnipro-Buh estuary and the delta of Dnipro River in Mykolaiv and Kherson Region. Study was conducted in 2015–2016. This parasite was found in natural water reservoirs in Mykolaiv and Kherson region in following fish species: Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758), Perca fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758). Ichtyopathological investigation of 346 fishes was conducted. Parasites were observed in abdominal cavity, muscle tissue, wall of gastro-intestinal tract, gonads and hepatopancreas. P. fluviatilis was the most affected species, prevalence of infection was 85.1 %. Less infected were S. lucioperca and E. lucius, with the prevalence of infection 58.1 % and 58.9 % respectively. Mean prevalence of infection of predatory fish in studied reservoirs was 70.5 %. The intensity of infection was the highest in perch (1–14 nematodes per fish). The lowest intensity of infection was found in pike-perch (1–9 nematodes per fish).

that the intensity and prevalence of infection exhibit marked dependency on host age. With regards to gender, the present study found a significant difference in the prevalence of schistosomiasis between male and female participants. These are consistent with many other reports worldwide ( Garba et al ., 2010 ; Ahmed et al ., 2012 ). Males usually have higher prevalence rates of schistosomiasis than females and this was attributed to religious and cultural reasons or to water contact behavior ( El-Khoby et al., 2000 ; Haidar, 2001 ; Matthys et al., 2007