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update. Br J Sports Med, 2011; 45: 923-930 Kriemler S, Zahner L, Schindler C, Meyer U, Hartmann T, Hebestreit H, Brunner-La Rocca H, van Mechelen H, Puder J. Effect of school based physical activity programme (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in primary schoolchildren: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 2010; 340: c785 Léger LA, Mercier D, Gadoury C, Lambert J. The multistage 20 meter shuttle run test for aerobic fitness. J Sports Sci, 1988; 6: 93-101 Lillegard WA, Brown EW, Wilson DJ, Henderson R, Lewis E. Efficacy of strength training in prepubescent to early

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of two different recovery durations (2 min versus 5 min) on the physiological responses (power output, stretch-shortening cycle and lactate concentration) to a 5×6 s repeated cycling sprint exercise protocol in pre-pubescent soccer players.

Materials and methods: Twelve male soccer players (age 12.23 ± 0.55 yrs, body mass 43.6 ± 5.5 kg and height 156.1 ± 5.8 cm) performed 5 × 6 s sprints on a cycle ergometer (Ergomedic 874E, Monark, Sweden) against 0.075 times their body mass resistance on two occasions within a week. In one session there was a 2 min recovery and in the other there was a 5 min recovery in a counterbalanced order. A squat jump (SJ) and a countermovement jump (CMJ) were tested before and after each trial, and the eccentric utilisation ratio (EUR) was calculated as CMJ/SJ.

Results: No significant trial × recovery interaction was observed in the participants’ peak power (p = 0.891, η2 = 0.118), mean power (p = 0.910, η2 = 0.106), SJ (p = 0.144, η2 = 0.630), CMJ (p = 0.616, η2 = 0.347) and EUR (p = 0.712, η2 = 0.295). However, a main effect of the trial on the CMJ of a large magnitude (p = 0.006, η2 = 0.862) was found, in which a higher score was recorded in the third trial than in the first trial (23.3 versus 21.8 cm). No differences were found in the lactate concentrations examined 5 min after the end of the protocol between the two recovery conditions (6.7 ± 1.8 vs. 6.0 ± 1.6 mmol · L–1, in the 2 and 5 min recovery, respectively, Cohen’s d = 0.4).

Conclusions: The duration of the passive recovery time (2 min vs. 5 min) in trials of repeated sprints did not induce important changes either to the indices of the jumping performance or to the power output in pre-pubescent participants.

competence in physical activity: An emergent relationship. Quest, 2008; 60: 290-306 Suchomel A. Relation between anthropometric somatotype and motor performance in prepubescent and pubescent Czech. Anthropologie, 2002; 40(2): 193-201. Tanner JM. Growth at adolescence. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1962. Tovar G, Poveda J, Pinilla M, Lobelo F. Relationship between overweight, physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged boys in Bogotá Colombia. Arch Latinoam Nutr, 2008; 58(3): 265-273 Wrotniak B, Epstein L, Dorn J, Jones K, Kondilis V. The relationship

Abstract

Tubercular mastitis is a rare clinical entity as mammary gland tissue, like spleen and skeletal muscle, offers resistance to the survival and multiplication of the tubercle bacillus. Tuberculosis of the breast can mimic carcinoma, whereas in young patients it can be mistaken for a pyogenic breast abscess, thus labeled a “great masquerader” in recognition of its multifaceted presentation. Breast tuberculosis commonly affects women in the reproductive age group, between 21 and 30 years, and is rare in prepubescent females and elderly women. Fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful and it is a promising technique in expert hands. In tuberculosis-endemic countries, the finding of granuloma on fine needle aspiration cytology warrants empirical treatment for tuberculosis even in the absence of positive acid-fast bacilli and without culture results. We hereby report a case of tubercular mastitis in a post-menopausal seronegative female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology with a positive acid-fast bacilli and a review of the recent literature.

, Bassa E, Patikas D, Giakas G, Gollhofer A, Kotzamanidis C. Neuromuscular differences between prepubescents boys and adult men during drop jump. Eur J Appl Physiol , 2010; 110: 67-74 Liu Y, Peng CH, Wei SH, Chi JC, Tsai FR, Chen JY. Active leg stiffness and energy stored in the muscles during maximal counter movement jump in the aged. J Electromyogr Kinesiol , 2006; 16: 342-351 Pucsok JM, Nelson K, Ng ED. A kinetic and kinematic analysis of the Harai-goshi judo technique. Acta Physiol Hung , 2001; 88: 271-280 Sbriccoli P, Camomilla V, Di Mario A, Quinzi F, Figura F

­ity in prepubescent children. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 105: 731-738. 10. Hautala A., Mäkikallio T., Kiviniemi A., Laukkanen R., Nissilä S., Huikuri H., Tulppo M. (2003) Cardiovascular autonomic function correlates with the response to aero­bic training in healthy sedentary subjects. Am. J. Physiol., Heart Circ. Physiol., 285: 1747-1752. 11. Kaikkonen P., Nummela A., Rusko H. (2007) Heart rate variability dynamics during early recovery after different endurance exercises. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 102: 79-86. 12. Kantomaa M. (2010) The role of physical activity on

spinal curvature in prepubescent children. Work 32(3), 351-360. 15. Cavanagh P.R., Rodgers M.M., Iiboshi A. (1987). Pressure distribution under symptom-free feet during barefoot standing. Foot Ankle 7(5), 262-276. 16. Rodrigues S., Montebelo M.I.L., Teodori R.M. (2008). Plantar force distribution and pressure center oscillation in relation to the weight and positioning of school supplies and books in student’s backpack. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy 12(1), 43-48. 17. Muratori L.M., Lamberg E.M., Quinn L., Duff S.V. (2013). Applying principles of motor learning

-developed silver yoga exercise program for female seniors. J. Nurs. Res. , 16:37-46. Cowen V. S., T. B. Adams (2007) Heart rate in yoga asana practice: a comparison of styles. J. Bodywork Mov. Ther. , 11:91-95. Diallo O., E. Dore, P. Duche, E. Van Praagh (2001) Effects of plyometric training followed by a reduced training programme on physical performance in prepubescent soccer players. J. Sports Med. Physiol. Fitness , 41(3):342-348. Fowler N. E., Z. Trzaskoma, A. Wit, L. Iskra, A. Lees (1995) The effectiveness of a pendulum swing for the development of the leg strength and

children of 0-24 months diagnosed with pneumonia admitted to our clinic. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2011;4:227-33. 22. Kelishadi R, Hashemipour M, Adeli K, et al. Effect of zinc supplementation on markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation among prepubescent children with metabolic syndrome. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2010;8:505-10. 23. Ortega RM, Rodríguez-Rodríguez E, Aparicio A, et al. Poor zinc status is associated with increased risk of insulin resistance in Spanish chil-dren. Br J Nutr. 2012;107:398-404. 24. Bajait C, Thawani V. Role of zinc in

prepubescent females. Med Sci Sport Exer , 1994; 26: S210 Lozano L, Viciana J, Martínez JC, Cocca A, Jiménez R. Influence of classroom environment and motor engagement time. Rev Mex Psicol , 2009; 26: 675-676 Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia. Royal decree 1513/2006, the 7th December, laying down the Curriculum for Primary Education. Madrid, Spain: Government Gazette, 43053-43102; 2006 Ortega FB, Ruiz JR, Castillo MJ, Sjöström M. Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: A powerful marker of health. Int J Obesity , 2008; 32: 1-11 Ruiz JR, España Romero V, Castro