update. Br J Sports Med, 2011; 45: 923-930 Kriemler S, Zahner L, Schindler C, Meyer U, Hartmann T, Hebestreit H, Brunner-La Rocca H, van Mechelen H, Puder J. Effect of school based physical activity programme (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in primary schoolchildren: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 2010; 340: c785 Léger LA, Mercier D, Gadoury C, Lambert J. The multistage 20 meter shuttle run test for aerobic fitness. J Sports Sci, 1988; 6: 93-101 Lillegard WA, Brown EW, Wilson DJ, Henderson R, Lewis E. Efficacy of strength training in prepubescent to early
Study aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of two different recovery durations (2 min versus 5 min) on the physiological responses (power output, stretch-shortening cycle and lactate concentration) to a 5×6 s repeated cycling sprint exercise protocol in pre-pubescent soccer players.
Materials and methods: Twelve male soccer players (age 12.23 ± 0.55 yrs, body mass 43.6 ± 5.5 kg and height 156.1 ± 5.8 cm) performed 5 × 6 s sprints on a cycle ergometer (Ergomedic 874E, Monark, Sweden) against 0.075 times their body mass resistance on two occasions within a week. In one session there was a 2 min recovery and in the other there was a 5 min recovery in a counterbalanced order. A squat jump (SJ) and a countermovement jump (CMJ) were tested before and after each trial, and the eccentric utilisation ratio (EUR) was calculated as CMJ/SJ.
Results: No significant trial × recovery interaction was observed in the participants’ peak power (p = 0.891, η2 = 0.118), mean power (p = 0.910, η2 = 0.106), SJ (p = 0.144, η2 = 0.630), CMJ (p = 0.616, η2 = 0.347) and EUR (p = 0.712, η2 = 0.295). However, a main effect of the trial on the CMJ of a large magnitude (p = 0.006, η2 = 0.862) was found, in which a higher score was recorded in the third trial than in the first trial (23.3 versus 21.8 cm). No differences were found in the lactate concentrations examined 5 min after the end of the protocol between the two recovery conditions (6.7 ± 1.8 vs. 6.0 ± 1.6 mmol · L–1, in the 2 and 5 min recovery, respectively, Cohen’s d = 0.4).
Conclusions: The duration of the passive recovery time (2 min vs. 5 min) in trials of repeated sprints did not induce important changes either to the indices of the jumping performance or to the power output in pre-pubescent participants.
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Tubercular mastitis is a rare clinical entity as mammary gland tissue, like spleen and skeletal muscle, offers resistance to the survival and multiplication of the tubercle bacillus. Tuberculosis of the breast can mimic carcinoma, whereas in young patients it can be mistaken for a pyogenic breast abscess, thus labeled a “great masquerader” in recognition of its multifaceted presentation. Breast tuberculosis commonly affects women in the reproductive age group, between 21 and 30 years, and is rare in prepubescent females and elderly women. Fine needle aspiration cytology is very useful and it is a promising technique in expert hands. In tuberculosis-endemic countries, the finding of granuloma on fine needle aspiration cytology warrants empirical treatment for tuberculosis even in the absence of positive acid-fast bacilli and without culture results. We hereby report a case of tubercular mastitis in a post-menopausal seronegative female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology with a positive acid-fast bacilli and a review of the recent literature.
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