The role of the translator as a mediator in literary translation has been a salient topic since the late twentieth century; however, more recent research signifies that instead of mediating, the translator sometimes affects the literary work translated, shifting the focus of such studies onto the reader. This article aims at investigating the possible effects the literary translator has on readers by examining the translation of address forms, the linguistic markers of social status into Lithuanian and the use of polite or familiar second-person pronouns in two crime fiction novels, Agatha Christie’s (1962) The Mirror Crack’d from Side to Side and John Grisham’s (1992) The Pelican Brief. The literary translator may grapple with the issue of translating social interactions which derives from cultural differences present in the source and target societies. Subsequently, containing a plethora of realistically depicted social interactions adherent to the societies represented, crime fiction provides Lithuanian literary translators with the issue of deciphering power relations based on the contexts they occur in and choosing accordant polite or familiar second-person pronouns, a distinction not present in English. As this study has shown, the translator sometimes misinterprets power relations or favours the social norms of the target culture, affecting the narrative, creating effects discordant with the writer’s intentions, and in some cases, entailing a contingent barrier between the reader and the original literary work.
This paper considers the relations between political power and scholarly activity during the period of the communist regime in Slovakia, then part of Czechoslovakia. Taking the example of a research project on the Ukrainian minority, undertaken by the Slovak Academy of Sciences during the years 1954–70, the paper traces the relationships between scholars and politicians and among academic institutions in the Czech lands and Slovakia, and the interventions by political power in academic work. The author focuses on the following questions: how did the project originate, and what were its aims and results? In what political, economic and social context did scholars undertake the project? How did the power relations between scholars and politicians develop and change in the course of the project? Why did political power intervene in research of the Ukrainian ethnic group? The paper draws upon M. Foucault’s views on the exercise of power, develops questions of the legitimacy of power (R. Barker), conceives scholarly work as an activity of a certain kind (P. Rabinow), and concentrates on the actors in power relationships, their strategies and motivations. Empirical data for the answer to research questions were acquired from archival documents about the project and from interviews with scholars who had participated in its work. The findings from analyses show what the specific possibilities and limits were for scholars functioning in the respective network of power relationships. They furthermore reveal a gamut of successful or unsuccessful strategies which scholars employed to bring about changes in the processes of the exercise of power.
The article analyses the Slovak preschool education sector using Bourdieu’s field theory. It describes stable and volatile points in the evolution of preschool education in terms of the power games occurring within the specific social field of power relations shaped during these games. It explores the groups of powerful players that represent the political, civic-professional and academic sub-fields exerting an influence over the preschool field who in different ways and at various times control the preschool field and structure within it the hierarchy of power relations in preschool education governance. The analysis is empirically illustrated; the power relations played out and were renewed when the national preschool curriculum was undergoing fundamental change. It describes the strategies, processes and consequences of changes in the power relations between the sub-fields and the associated behaviour of the actors. The analysis shows how the power conflicts ultimately led to the homologous relations between the sub-fields transforming into democratically- -structured power relations in preschool education governance.
The present article reports on a case study that focuses, comparatively, on the extent to which Romania’s Prime Minister Adrian Năstase and UK’s Prime Minister Tony Blair reveal their intentions and thoughts in their investment speeches, by the use of the personal pronouns I and we. The number of occurrences of each of the two first person pronouns and the way in which they are used will be considered in an analysis that is both quantitative and qualitative. The overall aim of the comparative approach is to highlight how democracy is seen in the cases scrutinized, based on the activation by the speakers of the principle of cooperation in oral communication.
Although globalization brings different countries and cultures in closer and closer contact, people are still sensitive when it comes to aspects such as cultural specificity or ethnicity. The collapse of communism and the extension of the European Union have determined an increase of interest in Romania’s image, both on the part of foreigners and of Romanians themselves. The purpose of this paper is to follow the development of Romania’s image in English travelogues in the last hundred years, its evolution from a land of “woods and water” in the pre-communist era to a “grand bazaar” in the post-communist one, with clear attempts, in recent years, to re-discover a more idyllic picture of the country, one that should encourage ecological tourism. The article is also intended to illustrate the extra-textual (historical, economic, cultural) factors that have impacted, in different ways, on this image evolution.
Romance has the reputation of being an opiate for the masses. This paper intends to analyze if it is indeed a fantasy imposed from above or if there is room for negotiation. The chosen space is vampire romance writer J. R. Ward's forum. Power will be discussed through the lens of Foucault's Panopticon and de Certeau's productive consumption, among others.
Romance has the reputation of being an opiate for the masses. This paper intends to analyze if it is indeed a fantasy imposed from above or if there is room for negotiation. The chosen space is vampire romance writer J. R. Ward's forum. Power will be discussed through the lens of Foucault's Panopticon and de Certeau's productive consumption, among others
Following calls for diverse and contextual perspectives of the rich lives of young children, their families and communities from/in the Global South, this paper presents critical reflections emerging from a three-year (2016-2019) communitybased Integrated Approach to Early Childhood Development (ECD) project implemented in the rural Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. It explores the critical relationship established between a range of stakeholders involved in this project as reflected on by two community activists working together in the area of early childhood in the province for thirty years. This article highlights the importance of situating any community development initiative aimed at addressing early childhood provision in marginalised communities within a social justice framework. This includes identifying constraints inherent in unequal relations of power that risk undermining solidarity and agency for community stakeholders. It foregrounds accountability measures that emerge from local initiatives rather than from narrow predetermined project outcomes. This provides an opportunity to learn from, and engage with, experiences from the margins, thereby challenging some dominant narratives circulating, and often informing, early childhood policy and provision.
-technical-spatial formations constantly passing through a continuous process of (re)production by various forces/actors and (power) relations. This produces new and varied topics and issues deserving the attention of academics, local authorities, and inhabitants as well as other agents involved in their development. The main objective of this article is to provide the reader with some ideas related to the opportunities for applying certain “Western” concepts and approaches in the study of HEs in the “Eastern” context (the interpretation of the terms “Western” and “Eastern” will be explained
, followed by an empirical analysis of Turkish migrants' perceptions of and responses to Syrian refugees. The analysis elaborates further two different socio-spatial fields: spaces of solidarity and spaces of contestation. Two findings emerge as crucial. Firstly, the interplay between particular socio-economic, political, religious and ethnic characteristics of Turkish migrants shapes their social standing in urban space. Secondly, unequal powerrelations and local, national and transnational dynamics act as crucial intervening factors shaping urban