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References 1. Zhu S., Lee S.W. Co-combustion performance of poultry wastes and natural gas in the advanced Swirling Fluidized Bed Combustor (SFBC). Waste Management, 2005, Nr.25, p. 511-518. 2. Kelleher B.P., Leahy J.J., Henihan A.M., O’Dwyer T.F., Sutton D., Leahy M.J. Advances in poultry litter disposal technology - a review, Bioresource Technology, 2002, Nr. 83, p. 27-36 3. Henihan A.M., Leahy M.J., Leahy J.J., Cummins E., Kelleher B.P. Emissions modeling of fluidised bed co-combustion of poultry litter and peat, Bioresource Technology , 2003, Nr

, Ojo FA, Fagade O. Prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates from selected poultry waste dumps in South western Nigeria. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;25:713-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11274-008-9940-y. [16] Liu Y, Liu K, Lai J, Wu C, Shen J, Wang Y. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species of food animal origin from Beijing and Shandong Province, China. J Appl Microbiol. 2013;114:555-63. DOI: 10.1111/jam.12054. [17] Frye JG, Jackson CR. Genetic mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance identified in Salmonella enterica

Methane fermentation of poultry slaughterhouse waste

One of the alternative methods for the treatment of animal by-products is their utilization in biological processes with a simultaneous production of energy-rich biogas. The results of the investigations of methane fermentation of animal waste are discussed in the study. The methane fermentation was carried out at 35°C. The substrates used in the experiments included poultry heads and muscle tissue. Furthermore, the fermentation residues subjected previously to hydrothermal processing were used as a substrate. The suspension of those substrates in the initial concentration range from 1 g TOC/dm3 to 11 g TOC/dm3 was used in the process. Additionally, the effect of the preliminary stage of hydrothermal substrate processing on methane fermentation efficiency was assessed. Poultry waste was subjected to thermohydrolysis at the temperature from 100°C to 300°C and pressure up to 9.0 MPa. The efficiency of the methane fermentation was estimated on the basis of biogas generated in the process. The biogas production was between 0.17 Ndm3/g TOC and 1.53 Ndm3/g TOC. In the case of poultry heads, a beneficial impact of hydrothermal processing at the temperatures from 100°C to 175°C was confirmed. For poultry meat the preliminary thermohydrolysis brought about a decrease of methane fraction in the biogas evolved. The preliminary hydrothermal processing made it possible to meet the requirements of legal regulations for the hygienization of by-products of animal origin. The obtained results allowed us to identify conditions under which the methane fermentation was carried out and which ensured a high level of methanization.

. 2016;23(1):99-115. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2016-0007. [4] Geršl M, Kandu T, Matýsek D, Šotnar M, Mareček J. The role of mineral phases in the biogas production technology. Ecol Chem Eng S. 2018;25(1):51-59. DOI: 10.1515/eces-2018-0003. [5] Salminen E, Rintala J. Anaerobic digestion of organic solid poultry slaughterhouse waste - a review. Bioresour Technol. 2002;83(1):13-26. DOI: 10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00199-7. [6] Arshad M, Bano I, Khan N, Shahzad MI, Younus M, Abbas M, et al. Electricity generation from biogas of poultry waste: An assessment of potential and feasibility

factors of poultry production as sustainable enterprise among farmers using improved methods in rural Nigeria. International Journal of Poultry Science, 9: 459 – 463. Kwara state (2010): Kwara state Government. Retrieved Febrary 20, 2016 from www.kwarastate.gov.ng/about-kwara-state Moreki L. C., Chiripasi, S. C. (2011): Poultry waste management in Bostwana: A review. Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research 1: 285 – 292. Moreki J. C., Keaikitse T. (2013): Poultry waste management practices in selected poultry operations around Gaborone, Botswana. International

Production of organic fertilizer from poultry feather wastes excluding the composting process

Chicken feathers generated in large quantities by the poultry industry are hazardous for the natural environment because of their poor digestibility and their potential as a source of microbiological pathogens. Currently, the main method of feather waste management is the production of feather meal by steam pressure cooking. This technology requires a high energy input. The high costs of hydrothermal degradation of these wastes are conducive to finding other alternative possibilities of poultry wastes management. This paper describes the feather-utilization method with calcium oxide treatment in a rotational reactor, which leads to the production of organic-mineral fertilizers. The effectiveness of this method has been tested in chemical and microbiological analyses. The results of the study confirm the possibility of the environmental usage of utilization-products.

Abstract

Lime and cement are quite compatible for stabilizing clayey soils; changes in a thermal regime may inversely affect the advantages of stabilized soil. The present study interprets changes in the mechanical behaviour of frozen and unfrozen Himalayan soil samples through an unconfined compressive strength test. The soil was treated with ground eggshell powder (3%-9%) and alkali activator (Sodium chloride) (2%-6%); it was reinforced with arbitrarily distributed polypropylene fibers (0.05%-0.15%). Standard 7, 14 and 21-day-old soil specimens were tested in unfrozen conditions, while fresh 21-day-old soil specimens were tested after 3, 5 and 10 freeze-thaw cycles. The design of the experiments was based on the Taguchi technique and arranged in an orthogonal array. The results of the research clearly show that poultry waste (eggshell powder) and alkaline soil stabilizer improved the strength behaviour of the subject soil. On the other hand, the polypropylene fibers played an important role in changing the brittle behaviour of the stabilized soil to ductile behaviour. The sudden collapse of a structure may be avoided by using polypropylene fibers.

. Biology and Fertility of Soils 12(2): 89-94. Sims J.T., Wolf D.C. (1994): Poultry waste management: Agriculture and Environmental issues. Advances in Agronomy 52: 2-83. Takahashi S., Uesosono S., Nagatomo M. (2004): Rice uptake of Nitrogen from aerobically and anaerobically composted poultry manure . Journal of Plant Nutrition 27(4): 731-741. Van Averbeke W., Juma K.A., Tshikalange T.E. (2007): Yield response of Africa leafy vegetables to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The case of Brassica rapa L. subsp. chinensis and Solanum retroflexum Dun. Water SA 33

performance analysis for food, municipal solid and poultry waste, Biomass and Bioenergy (2011), doi:10.1016/ j.biombioe.2011.06.005 Ruiz G. J., Kim S. B, Moon J. et al. Design and optimization of energy efficient complex separation networks, Computers and Chemical Engineering , 2010, vol. 34, p. 1556-1563 Elmalik E. E., Tora E., El-Halwagi M. et al. Solvent selection for commercial supercritical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process, Fuel Processing Technology , 2011, vol. 92, p. 1525-1530 Bajohr S., Baudry A., Götz M. et al. Methanisierung - technische Ansätze und deren