The concentrations of potentially toxic metals (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn and Fe) and the values of magnetic susceptibility in surface soils were measured along NW-SE gradient in Bratislava city (rural – urban – rural soils). The results indicate that both the contents of potentially toxic metals (PTMs) and the values of magnetic susceptibility decrease with increasing distance from the city centre in both directions. Urban soils are enriched mainly in Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn. Their elevated concentrations in soils within the city are due to accumulation from anthropogenic activities. There was a statistically significant and positive correlation between the mean values of Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) and the mean values of magnetic susceptibility in soil samples. This correlation shows that the monitoring of magnetic properties of soils can be used as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the effective determination of environmental pollution in urbanized regions affected by anthropogenic activities.
Maroš Sirotiak, Marek Lipovský and Alica Bartošová
In the research described in this paper, studied was sorption capacity of natural and ferric modification of zeolite tuff containing mineral clinoptilolite from the Nižný Hrabovec deposit to remove potentially toxic metals (ionic forms of chromium, nickel, copper and aluminium) from their water solutions. We reported that the Fe (III) zeolite has an enhanced ability to sorption of Cu (II), and a slight improvement occurs in the case of Cr (VI) and Ni (II). On the other hand, the deterioration was observed in the case of Al (III) adsorption.
Vladimír Frišták, Wolfgang Friesl-Hanl, Martin Pipíška, Barbora Richveisová Micháleková and Gerhard Soja
This paper evaluates the effect of simulated conditions of artificial aging on sorption capacity of two types of biochar. These were produced by slow pyrolysis from different feedstock - beech wood chips (BC A) and garden green waste residues (BC B). Cadmium served as a model for potentially toxic metals. Twenty freeze-thaw cycles were used to simulate physical aging. The determination of biochar physicochemical properties showed main changes in CEC and SA values of aged sorbents. The maximum sorption capacities of aged BC A sorbent were higher by about 26 % and aged BC B sorbent by about 20% compared to Qmax of non-aged biochar. Qmax of aged BC B peaked at 9.4 mg g-1 whereas BC A sorbed significantly less Cd. FT-IR analyses confirmed the changes in structural composition and content of functional groups on biochar surfaces. The artificial physical aging model was assessed as an efficient tool for investigation of natural weathering conditions.
Phytoremediation is a plant based environmental cleanup technology to contain (rendering less toxic), sequester and degrade contaminated susbtrates. As can be seen from data metrics, it is gaining cosiderable importance globally. Phytoremediation approach is being applied for cleanup of inorganic (potentially toxic metals), organic (persistent, emergent, poly-acromatic hydrocarbons and crude oil etc.) and co-contaminated (mixture of inorganic and organic) and/or polluted sites globally. Recently new approaches of utilizing abundantly available natural organic amendments have yielded significant results. Ricinus communis L. (Castor bean) is an important multipurpose crop viz., Agricultural, Energy, Environmental and Industrial crop. The current status of knowledge is abundant but scattered which need to be exploited for sustainable development. This review collates and evaluates all the scattered information and provides a critical view on the possible options for exploiting its potential as follows: 1. Origin and distribution, 2. Lead toxicity bioassays, 3. Progress in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-assisted phytoremediation, 4. Promising bioenergy crop that can be linked to pytoremediation, 5. A renewable source for many bioproducts with rich chemical diversity, 6. It is a good biomonitor and bioindicator of atmospheric pollution in urban areas, 7. Enhanced chelate aided remediation, 8. Its rhizospheric processes accelerate natural attenuation, 9. It is suitable for remediation of crude oil contaminated soil, 10. It is an ideal candidate for aided phytostabilization, 11. Castor bean is a wizard for phytoremediation and 12. Its use in combined phytoextraction and ecocatalysis. Further, the knowledge gaps and scope for future research on sustainable co-generation of value chain and value addition biobased products for sustainable circular economy and environmental security are described in this paper.
Alena Vollmannova, Eva Margitanova, Tomas Toth, Radovan Stanovic, Tatiana Bojnanska, Iveta Cicova and Michaela Benkova
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Halina Dąbkowska-Naskręt, Szymon Różański and Agata Bartkowiak
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