Agnieszka Popiela, Andrzej Łysko, Zofia Sotek and Krzysztof Ziarnek
In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa) includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa), i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi-natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora). Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum) are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.
Katarzyna Kozłowska-Kozak, Maciej Kozak and Artur Pliszko
In 2013 and 2018, the occurrence of alien Dittrichia graveolens was confirmed within 126 road sections (1-kilometre) of the A4 highway in the Lower Silesian Province and Silesian Province, south-western Poland. During five years the increase in abundance has been recorded within 50 sections (52.1%), a decrease within 11 sections (11.5%), whereas within 35 sections (36.5%) it remained unchanged. New data suggest that D. graveolens is fully established in the Polish flora, and it should be classified as a potentially invasive species.
Muhlenbergia schreberi, nimblewill, is a widespread North American perennial grass species, slowly spreading in European countries, where it has been recorded in Spain, Switzerland, Italy, and Slovenia. In addition, a well naturalized population was discovered in Opatija (Northwestern Croatia, Croatian Littoral) in 2011 as described herein. It has been recognized as a persistent weed in some North American states, and in the last few decades its secondary European distribution range has been slowly increasing. Thus most probably it will also spread in Croatia and become classified as invasive.
The paper presents the distribution of 10 selected invasive plant species in Ukraine. The studied taxa comprised 8 invasive and 2 potentially invasive species. All species were characterized in phytogeographical, biological and ecological terms. Their distribution was shown on grid maps.
The ballast water treatment systems are installed on vessels according to International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other marine administrations requirements. The aim is to minimize the risk of environment contamination from ships’ ballast water and sediments.
The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM 2004 Convention) is adopted in 2004 to introduce global regulations to control to transfer potentially invasive species. The BWM Convention will enter into force on 8th September 2017 on vessels with small exceptions.
It was discussed the ballast water treatment standards and technology for fulfilment of IMO, EMSA, USCG and other regulations. The standard D-2 of ballast water cleanliness should be reached after proper treatment through the BWMS.
Some BWMS packs were presented with their advantages and disadvantages. The existing problem is the ballast water cleanliness discharged outboard and the state of cleanliness of ballast water tanks and installation.
It was mentioned some problems to solve during the choice of BWMS.
It was discussed the threats for BWMS effectiveness of ballast water cleanliness.
Overharvesting and trade in amphibian populations is one of the causes of their global decline. Online trade not only encourages the exploitation of an increasing number of rare and endangered amphibian species from all over the world but also influences the spread of invasive species. The aim of our research was to investigate the amphibian pet trade conducted in online stores and portals in Poland and determine its potential impact on native species. Between November 2013 and October 2014, we regularly (on a monthly basis) checked sale offers on the websites of the 18 biggest pet shops in the country specialised in exotic animals, on a nationwide auction portal and on three exotic pet fan portals. During the study, we reported 486 offers of 112 amphibian species in online stores and on portals. Most of the offers involved one of the four families of amphibians: poison dart frogs (Dendrobatidae), tree frogs (Hylidae), true toads (Bufonidae) and true salamanders (Salamandridae). Our data show increased interest in amphibians as pets in Poland. At least half of the offered species are possible hosts for the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. However, only one species, the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802), appears to be a potential invasive species. To summarise, the species offered in Poland that are characterised as threatened are predominantly those that are relatively easy to breed and that are popular as pets. Further studies are required to investigate the real threat to wild amphibian populations caused by the pet trade
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