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Introduction Previous muscle contractions of skeletal muscle play a pivotal role in the subsequent performance from that muscle group ( Kilduff et al., 2007 ; Wilson et al., 2013 ). Muscle contractions may acutely decrease or increase force production in a subsequent motor activity: force depression after a previous muscle contraction is known as fatigue, while force enhancement is defined as post-activation potentiation (PAP) ( Batista et al., 2007 ). Any previous muscle activity can trigger both PAP and fatigue mechanisms. Thus, the performance enhancement

authors have reported an acute enhancement of jumping ability ( Boullosa et al., 2011 ; García-Pinillos et al., 2015 ; Latorre-Román et al., 2014 ; Vuorimaa et al., 2006 ) after running protocols in runners, others ( Boullosa and Tuimil, 2009 ) have not found post-activation potentiation (PAP) effects in non-runners after a similar stimulus. The term of PAP refers to the significant enhancement of muscular twitch force after voluntary contractile activity ( Mettler and Griffin, 2012 ), but the mechanism responsible for this muscle potentiation has not been fully

Introduction Post activation potentiation (PAP) can be defined as the acute enhancement of muscle contractile properties induced by maximal voluntary isometric (MVIC) or near maximal voluntary muscle contractions ( Baudry and Duchateau, 2007 ; Jubeau et al., 2010 ; MacIntosh, 2010 ). In the absence of stiffness and muscle architectural changes ( Gago et al., 2014a ; Rodriguez-Falces et al., 2015) , acute enhancements of twitch parameters such as peak torque (PT) and the rate of torque development (RTD) and relaxation (RTR) after an MVIC might be mainly related

performance ( Arabatzi et al., 2010 ; Byrne et al.,2010 ; Wang et al., 2014). For acute improvement, some researchers and coaches have used heavy load exercise as a warm-up protocol to immediately enhance the following VJ performance ( Chen et al., 2013 ; Cormie et al., 2006 ; Kilduff et al., 2007 ; Lamont et al., 2010 ; Gołaś et al., 2016 ). An improved performance following heavy load exercise is known as the phenomenon of post-activation potentiation (PAP) (Kilduff et al., 2007) . There are two proposed physiological mechanisms for PAP: 1) regulation of myosin

warmup strategies usually encompass low-intensity endurance exercise (e.g., running), flexibility and sport-specific drills ( Schilling and Stone, 2000 ), and may not optimize explosive strength ( Chiu et al., 2003 ). In soccer, warm-up strategies should aim to increase muscle temperature ( Bishop, 2003 ) and neural activation ( Zois et al., 2015 ), while minimizing fatigue. In this sense, a warm-up incorporating post-activation potentiation (PAP) may be an effective strategy compared to a traditional warm-up ( Gouvea et al., 2013 ; Zois et al., 2011 , 2015 ) in this

Strength Cond Res 2014 28 2236 2243 Golas A, Maszczyk A, Zajac A, Mikolajec K, Stastny P. Optimizing post activation potentiation for explosive activities in competitive sports. J Hum Kinet 2016; 52: 95-106 10.1515/hukin-2015-0197 28149397 Golas A Maszczyk A Zajac A Mikolajec K Stastny P Optimizing post activation potentiation for explosive activities in competitive sports J Hum Kinet 2016 52 95 106 Golas A, Wilk M, Statsny P, Maszczyk A, Pajerska K, Zajac A. Optimizing Half Squat Post Activation Potential Load In Squat Jump Training For Eliciting Relative Maximal

squat exercises on the subsequent jump performance J Strength Cond Res 2014 28 2236 2243 Gołaś A, Maszczyk A, Zajac A, Mikolajec K, Stastny P. Optimizing post activation potentiation for explosive activities in competitive sports. J Hum Kinet 2016; 52: 95-106 28149397 10.1515/hukin-2015-0197 Gołaś A Maszczyk A Zajac A Mikolajec K Stastny P Optimizing post activation potentiation for explosive activities in competitive sports J Hum Kinet 2016 52 95 106 Gołaś A, Wilk M, Statsny P, Maszczyk A, Pajerska K, Zajac A. Optimizing Half Squat Post Activation Potential Load In

Introduction There are numerous sport disciplines and events in which performance is highly influenced by the rate of power development (RPD). These include track & field sprints, throws, jumps and hurdling, as well as most team sport games and combat sports. Besides anthropometric characteristics and proper technique, explosive strength is a prerequisite of high performance in these sports. A phenomena known as the post activation potentiation (PAP) has shown improved performance during movements requiring large muscular power output following contractions under

Introduction Post‐activation potentiation (PAP) has been defined as an acute enhancement of muscular performance following a preload stimulus with maximal or submaximal muscle actions ( Gołaś et al., 2017 ; Hughes et al., 2016 ). Different physiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the PAP. On the one hand, the phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chains, what is related to increased rates of force development and peak isometric force ( Baudry and Duchateau, 2007 ). On the other hand, previous muscle contraction could raise the excitability of

Abstract

Complex training (CXT) is the result of a combination of strength and plyometric exercises in the same session. This method has recently been used in the preparation of athletes of different sports. The aim of the present study was to observe the acute effects of a CXT program of 6 weeks: i) on agility with the ball, sprinting and the efficiency of crossing and shooting in youth soccer players; ii) and the influence of the number of CXT sessions per week (one vs. two). Sixteen youth male soccer players were randomly divided into three groups: a group that performed one weekly CXT session (GCT1, n = 5, age: 13.80 ± 0.45 years); or a group that performed two weekly CXT sessions (GCT2, n = 5, age: 14.20 ± 0.45 years); or a control group that did not perform the CTX (n = 6, age: 14.20 ± 0.84 years). All groups maintained their regular soccer training sessions. No significant interactions were found between GCT1 and GCT2 in all variables. Significant statistical differences were identified (F = 1139, p = 0.02, μp2 = 0531) in the pre-test versus post-test, for both experimental groups, in shot effectiveness. In conclusion, the CXT program proved to be an effective method in boosting abilities and motor skills associated with soccer among young athletes, particularly in increasing shot effectiveness.