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The impact of gastroesophageal reflux in the ENT pathology

Abstract

Frequently encountered in medical practice, the gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a chronic condition characterized by the passage of gastric acid or gastric contents into the esophagus. In otorhinolaryngology, the diagnosis of pharyngo-laryngeal or rhinosinusal inflammatory conditions secondary to GER is one of exclusion and it is based on a detailed anamnesis in which we are interested in symptoms, behavioural and medical risk factors, on the ENT clinical examination, the laryngo-fibroscopical assessment, the phoniatric examination, the barite pharyngo-esogastric exam, the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and the esophageal manometry.

The authors are making a systematization of the contribution of the gastroesophageal reflux has in the ENT pathology, emphasising the sympytoms and the most frequent associated pathological entities.

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Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines

., 2010 ). Exercise-induced symptoms include watery nasal discharge, post-nasal drip, sneezing, swelling of nasal mucosa, eye and nose itching as well as lacrimation. The pathomechanism of exercise-induced rhinitis is not known. Possible factors include increased tension in cholinergic fibres, NANC and increased secretion of inflammatory mediators of histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandin D2 and TAME ( Silvers and Poole, 2006 ; Togias et al., 1985 ). According to Silvers and Poole (2006) , these symptoms most frequently occur during the winter season ( a skier’s nose

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