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Breeding bird community of a large cemetery in a Central European city in 1969 and 40 years later. – Vogelwelt 135: 67–74. Kopij, G. 2014c Population densities of birds breeding in urbanized habitats in the Grabiszyn district in the city of Wrocław. – Acta Musei Silesiae, Scientiae Naturales 63: 139–150. DOI: 10.2478/cszma-2014-0014 Kopij, G. 2015. The effect of the undergrowth on the breeding bird communities in urbanized afforested habitats. – Alauda 83: 23–31. Kopij, G. 2016. Breeding bird assemblage in a mosaic of urbanized habitats in a Central European city

, 1–10. Maclean, G. L. 1990. Ornithology for Africa . University of Natal Press, Pietermaritzburg, 1–270. Macleay, K. N. G. 1969. An annotated list of birds observed in the Roma area of Lesotho, August 1964 to May 1969 . Unpubl. report, NUL, Roma (Lesotho). Monadjem, A. 2005. Association between avian communities and vegetation structure in a low-laying woodland-savanna ecosystem in Swaziland. Ostrich , 75 , 45–55. Monadjem, A., Anderson, M. 2002. Population densities and community structure of birds in broadleaved woodland in the Lowveld of Swaziland. Ostrich

northeastern Finland. Silva Fennica 19: 165–169. Helle E., Helle P. 1982. Edge effect on forest bird densities on offshore islands in the northern Gulf of Bothnia. Annales Zoologici Fennici 19: 165–169. Hogstad O. 1967. The edge effect on species and population density of some passerine birds. Nytt Magasin for Zoologi 15: 40–43. Jakubiec Z., Wuczyński Z. 2013. Badania ilościowe ptaków lęgowych w lasach doliny Bystrzycy. Przyroda Sudetów 16: 121–138. Imbeau L., Drapeau P., Mönkkönen M. 2003. Are forest birds categorized as “edge species” strictly associated with edges


Studies were carried out in 2010 by mean of simplified version of the mapping method. The study area (395 ha) was located close to the city centre. It comprised a mosaic of urbanized habitats, with a clear dominance of green areas, such as parks (41.1 ha), gardens, cemeteries and tree clumps. A total of 48 breeding bird species were recorded in the whole study area. The most common (<25 pairs/100 ha) were Passer domesticus, Passer montanus, Sturnus vulgaris, Parus caeruleus, Parus major, Apus apus and Columba livia. Numerous (7-15 pairs/100 ha) were also the following species: Columba palumbus, Turdus pilaris, Sylvia atricapilla, Serinus serinus, Turdus merula and Pica pica. Insectivorous birds were the most common birds constituting 63.3%, and granivorous -32.6% of all pairs recorded. Most birds nested in tree holes (39.3%), in/on buildings (30.2%) and in trees/shrubs (25.6%). Distribution of breeding pairs of 23 bird species was presented on maps. Population trends for 17 species were documented. Rapid increase in numbers of Turdus pilaris, Corvus cornix and Phoenicurus phoenicurus and decrease of Pica pica were recorded.


Month-to-month changes in avian assembages are considerable in forest habitats. In this study such changes were studied by means of the line transect method (eight transect with total length of 77.7 km) in lowland coniferous forest in SW Poland (dominant forest type in Central European Plain), in three consecutive spring months: April, May and June. Shannon’s diversity index varied between 1.31 and 2.25 in particular month, while Simpson’s diversity index and Pielou’s evenness index were almost identical everywhere: H′ = 0.92-0.93 and J′ = 0.74-0.78, respectively. In overall, the differences in mean densities of breeding species between three months on all transects pooled were not statistically significant, as were also not statistically significant such differences on particular transects. Month-to-month variations in densities in all transects pooled were statistically significant in the case of 26 out of 54 species (48.1 %). Month-to-month changes in population densities recorded on transects, only partly conform to the arrival patterns. Two counts, instead of three, would sufficed for precise estimation of bird population densities in Central European lowland pine forests: one count should be conducted in April, to register mainly resident species, and the second one in May to count mainly the migrant species.


There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha) of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland). In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8%) and insectivores (37.9 %). Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris) an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

the population density of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. on tomato fields in northern Iraq. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture 21(2), 301–321 (in Arabic). [8] Bowles, J. E. (1984), Physical and geotechnical properties of soils . McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York. 241–276. [9] Charegani, H., Majzoob, S., Hamzehzarghani, H., Karegar-Bide, A. (2012), Effect of various initial population densities of two species of Meloidogyne on growth of tomato and cucumber in greenhouse. Nematologia Mediterranea 40(2), 129–134. [10] Chaudhary, K. K., Brhane, D., Okube

Hort. 21(1): 95-103. Jankowska B., Wiech K. 2006. The composition and role of parasitoids in reducing population densities of diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. on different cabbage vegetables. J. Plant Protection Res. 46 (3): 275-284. Łagowska B. 1981. Ichneumonidae i Braconidae ( Hymenoptera ) jako pasożyty tantnisia krzyżowiaczka - Plutella maculipennis CURT. ( Lepidoptera, Plutellidae ). Pol. Pismo Entomol. 51: 355-362. [in Polish] Miczulski B. 1996. Błonkówki ( Hymenoptera ) w biocenozie upraw rzepaku. Część II. Gąsieniczniki ( Ichneumonidae ). Pol


The article presents research on the population density of the Eurasian beaver in the large, medium and small rivers of the Republic of Mordovia. The population density of the beaver in the large rivers of the region varies from 0.45 to 0.62 colonies per km (average 0.52). The population density in medium rivers ranges from 0.36 to 0.48 colonies per km (average 0.4). In small rivers, population density ranges from 0.2 to 0.94 colonies per km (average 0.46). The total number of beavers in the region is about 17,000 individuals as at 2016.

Polish Towns and the Changes in Their Areas and Population Densities

This article presents the spatial and population density changes in Polish towns in the years 1960-2003. The assumed time frame allowed identifying area changes for a complete set of towns in different socio-economic conditions: the period of intense industrialisation, the economic crisis of the 1980s, the period of economic transition and finally in the years of a market economy. The investigation revealed that the trend shown by changes and the size of a town as measured by the number of its population are distinctly interrelated. It also demonstrated a much stronger dynamics of changes in the first subperiod, i.e. years 1960--1985, followed by a phase of relative stabilization (compared with the previous period) after the year 1980 (mainly of the spatial changes). Moreover, change intensity and change trends observed for the urban areas and population densities vary considerably in terms of space.