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References Barendt, Eric (2005) ‘Why Protect Free Speech?’ Chapter 1 in Freedom of Speech. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 1-38. Benhabib, S. (1992) ‘Models of Public Space’, in C. Calhoun (ed.). Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge: The MIT Press. Cloonan, Martin (1996) Banned - Censorship of PopularMusic in Britain 1967-1992. Ashgate Pub Co. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2006) The World Factbook - Ethiopia. Retrieved June 2007, from https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/et.html#Econ CPJ (Committee to Protect Journalists) (2007
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-Niekraszowa, Leokadia Myszyńska-Wojciechowska, Maria Poznańska, Jadwiga Baum-Czajkowska, Maria Orion-Bąkowska and – if we consistently take into account popularmusic as well – Anda Kitschmann and Stefania Górska. Example 1 Portraits of Polish women-composers. Left to right, from the top row: Grażyna Bacewicz-Biernacka, Helena Dorabialska, Łucja Drège-Schielowa, Anna Maria Klechniowska, Janina Grzegorzewicz-Lachowska, Zofia Ossendowska, Lucyna Robowska, Ilza Sternicka-Niekrasz, Wanda Vorbond-Dąbrowska, Zofia Wróblewska, Leokadia Myszyńska-Wojciechowska, Zofia Zdziennicka
The article focuses on the representation of wartime Japan as a home (and home country) by analysing contemporary popular songs. Within this frame I show examples of how the Japanese state managed to influence the Japanese people through propaganda songs in order to gain the people’s moral support for the war effort. My essay aims further at drawing a picture of Japan’s musical world from the latter half of the 1930s to the end of World War II, as a detailed consideration of popular music and its surroundings always allows us to interpret much more than expected at first view.
In addition, I consider the mass media as a supporter of Japan’s ideological aims. The history of radio and record companies is firmly interwoven with the efforts of the Japanese state to manipulate people during the war years. The contribution from artists must also be considered an important part of this mosaic.
Introduction. The multi-faceted function of music and its influence on psychological as well as physical well-being have been known from ancient times. Positive reports regarding music therapy contributed to increased interest in this particular branch among many obstetricians and neonatologists. The following study describes the review of clinical trials concerning music influence on pregnant women, women giving birth and on newborns. It has been proved using cardiotocography that fetus reacts to music - for example increased fetal heart rate was monitored as well as the baby being more active when the mother was exposed to particular sounds. Additionally, newborns respond positively (calm down more easily) when listening to the kind of music that their mothers had been listening to during pregnancy. Listening to classical, religious or even popular music can effectively reduce anxiety and pain sensation among pregnant women in both vaginal delivery as well as caesarean section. Two weeks of listening to music for 30 minutes a day can significantly reduce the risk of post-natal depression. In the case of newborns, especially premature neonates, the choice of music has a particularly strong impact. The American Academy of Pediatrics acknowledged 45 dB as an upper limit for the sound that should reach the incubator. Results. Babies exposed to higher level of noise can be at risk of changes in routinely monitored parameters such as increased heart rate, breathing frequency and hypoxia. On the contrary, a reversed outcome can be achieved by applying pieces by Mozart. Current reports prove the positive influence of introducing music therapy as an element of interdisciplinary and holistic care of pregnant women and newborns.
Press. Altman, R. (2004). Silent Film Sound. New York: Columbia University Press. Altman, R. (Ed.). (1992). Sound Theory / Sound Practice. New York: Routledge. Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (2nd ed.). London: Verso. Ansell, G. (2004). Soweto Blues: Jazz, PopularMusic, and Politics in South Africa. New York: Continuum. Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Attali, J. (1985). Noise: The Political Economy of Music