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Improvisation]. In: J. Osiński, M. Pranke, A. Szwagrzyk, P. Tański (Eds.), Kultura rocka. Twórcy – tematy – motywy [ The Culture of Rock: Authors – Themes – Motifs ] vol. 2 (pp. 291–300). Toruń: Zakład Antropologii Literatury i Edukacji Polonistycznej Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu. Piłaciński, P. (2016). Ujęcie performatywne w badaniu muzyki popularnej – perspektywy [The Performative Approach in Studies of Popular Music: Perspectives]. In: M. Jabłoński, M. Gamrat (Eds.), Nowa muzykologia [ The New Musicology ] (pp. 103–110). Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego

: University of Warsaw. Idzikowska-Czubaj, A. (2011). Rock w PRL-u. O paradoksach współistnienia [ Rock in the Polish People’s Republic. Paradoxes of Coexistence ]. Poznań: Wyd. Poznańskie. Larkey, E. (1992). Austropop: Popular Music and National Identity in Austria, Popular Music . Vol. 11, No. 2: „A Changing Europe”, pp. 151–185. Larkey, E. (1993). Pungent Sounds: Constructing Identity with Popular Music in Austria . New York-Bern-Berlin: Peter Lang. Michalski, D. (2009). Czesław Niemen. Czy go jeszcze pamiętasz? [ Czesław Niemen. Do You Still Remember Him

of Change: Communities and Scenes in Popular Music. Cultural Studies 20(3) : 368–388. Tawfik, Amal. 2012. Préférences musicales et distinction sociale en Suisse. Revue suisse de sociologie 38(1) : 77–97. Volz, Erik et Douglas D. Heckathorn. 2008. Probability based estimation theory for respondent driven sampling. Journal of Official Statistics 24(1) : 79–97. Wejnert, Cyprian et Douglas D. Heckathorn. 2011. Respondent-driven sampling: operational procedures, evolution of estimators, and topics for future research. Pp. 473–497 in The SAGE handbook of

Popular Music , MPhil thesis, Auckland University of Technology. Gibson, Andy and Allan Bell. 2012. Popular Music Singing as Referee Design. In Juan M. Hernández-Campoy and Juan A. Cutillas-Espinosa (eds.), Style-Shifting in Public. New Perspectives on Stylistic Variation , 139-164. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Hawkins, Sarah and Jonathan Midgley. 2005. Formant frequencies of RP monophthongs in four age groups of speakers. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2). 183-199. Hay, Jennifer, Stefanie Jannedy and Norma Mendoza-Denton. 1999

References Barendt, Eric (2005) ‘Why Protect Free Speech?’ Chapter 1 in Freedom of Speech. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 1-38. Benhabib, S. (1992) ‘Models of Public Space’, in C. Calhoun (ed.). Habermas and the Public Sphere. Cambridge: The MIT Press. Cloonan, Martin (1996) Banned - Censorship of Popular Music in Britain 1967-1992. Ashgate Pub Co. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) (2006) The World Factbook - Ethiopia. Retrieved June 2007, from https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/et.html#Econ CPJ (Committee to Protect Journalists) (2007

. Collins, John. 1989. “The early history of West African highlife music”. Popular Music. Vol. 8, No. 3. 221-230. Culver, Christopher. 2007. Fela’s Nigerian English. http://www.christopherculver.com/linguistweblog/2007/10/felas-nigerian-english/. Culver, Christopher. 2008. A linguistic approach to Fela Kuti’s lyrics. http://www.christopherculver.com/linguistweblog/2008/01/a-linguistic-approach-tofela-kuti%E2%80%99s-lyrics/. Accessed: 5. March 2012. Hassold, Finn. 2005. Die Krise des Highlife - Zur Entwicklung der populären Musik in Ghana . München: GRIN. Hickey, Raymond

-Niekraszowa, Leokadia Myszyńska-Wojciechowska, Maria Poznańska, Jadwiga Baum-Czajkowska, Maria Orion-Bąkowska and – if we consistently take into account popular music as well – Anda Kitschmann and Stefania Górska. Example 1 Portraits of Polish women-composers. Left to right, from the top row: Grażyna Bacewicz-Biernacka, Helena Dorabialska, Łucja Drège-Schielowa, Anna Maria Klechniowska, Janina Grzegorzewicz-Lachowska, Zofia Ossendowska, Lucyna Robowska, Ilza Sternicka-Niekrasz, Wanda Vorbond-Dąbrowska, Zofia Wróblewska, Leokadia Myszyńska-Wojciechowska, Zofia Zdziennicka

Abstract

The article focuses on the representation of wartime Japan as a home (and home country) by analysing contemporary popular songs. Within this frame I show examples of how the Japanese state managed to influence the Japanese people through propaganda songs in order to gain the people’s moral support for the war effort. My essay aims further at drawing a picture of Japan’s musical world from the latter half of the 1930s to the end of World War II, as a detailed consideration of popular music and its surroundings always allows us to interpret much more than expected at first view.

In addition, I consider the mass media as a supporter of Japan’s ideological aims. The history of radio and record companies is firmly interwoven with the efforts of the Japanese state to manipulate people during the war years. The contribution from artists must also be considered an important part of this mosaic.

Abstract

Introduction. The multi-faceted function of music and its influence on psychological as well as physical well-being have been known from ancient times. Positive reports regarding music therapy contributed to increased interest in this particular branch among many obstetricians and neonatologists. The following study describes the review of clinical trials concerning music influence on pregnant women, women giving birth and on newborns. It has been proved using cardiotocography that fetus reacts to music - for example increased fetal heart rate was monitored as well as the baby being more active when the mother was exposed to particular sounds. Additionally, newborns respond positively (calm down more easily) when listening to the kind of music that their mothers had been listening to during pregnancy. Listening to classical, religious or even popular music can effectively reduce anxiety and pain sensation among pregnant women in both vaginal delivery as well as caesarean section. Two weeks of listening to music for 30 minutes a day can significantly reduce the risk of post-natal depression. In the case of newborns, especially premature neonates, the choice of music has a particularly strong impact. The American Academy of Pediatrics acknowledged 45 dB as an upper limit for the sound that should reach the incubator. Results. Babies exposed to higher level of noise can be at risk of changes in routinely monitored parameters such as increased heart rate, breathing frequency and hypoxia. On the contrary, a reversed outcome can be achieved by applying pieces by Mozart. Current reports prove the positive influence of introducing music therapy as an element of interdisciplinary and holistic care of pregnant women and newborns.

Press. Altman, R. (2004). Silent Film Sound. New York: Columbia University Press. Altman, R. (Ed.). (1992). Sound Theory / Sound Practice. New York: Routledge. Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (2nd ed.). London: Verso. Ansell, G. (2004). Soweto Blues: Jazz, Popular Music, and Politics in South Africa. New York: Continuum. Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Attali, J. (1985). Noise: The Political Economy of Music