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Works Cited Beck, Sarah. “Appropriating Narratives of Conflict in Contemporary Verbatim Theatre: A Practice-as-Research-led Investigation into the Role of the Playwright.” PhD Diss. University of London, 2016. Billington, Michael. “P is for Political Theatre.” The Guardian 27 Mar.2012. Web. 03 July 2017. Billington, Michael. “My Country: A Work in Progress Review – Carol Ann Duffy Tackles Brexit.” The Guardian 13 Mar. 2017. Web. 1 July 2017. Billington, Michael. “The State of Reviewing Today.” Theatre in Crisis: Performance Manifestos for a New Century . Ed

-2017 [ Political theatre Teatru 2009-2017 ]. Editura Tact. Cluj. Neagu-Negulescu, Iuliu (2018). Arimania sau țara bunei înțelegeri [ Arimania or the country of well-understanding ]. Editura Pagini Libere. Cluj. Pasti, Vladimir (2006). Noul capitalism românesc [ The New Romanian Capitalism ]. Polirom. Iași. Piscator, Erwin (1966). Teatrul Politic [ Political Theatre ]. Editura Politică. București. Popescu, Theodor Cristian (2012). Surplus de oameni sau surplus de idei. Pionierii mișcării independente în teatrul românesc post 1989 [ Surplus of People or Surplus of Ideas

-Yer-Face and After.” Studies in Theatre and Performance 31.1 (2003): 55-58. Giritli, Mehmet Zeki. “Tiyatronun Büyük Yalanı: In-Your-Face.” Mimesis . N.d. Web. 16 Sept. 2017. İzci, İpek. “Muhalif Tiyatroya Tahammül Yok.” Radikal . Web. 21 Sept. 2017. Kalaycıoğlu, Ersin. “The Motherland Party: The Challenge of Institutionalization in a Charismatic Leader Party.” Political Parties in Turkey . Ed. Barry Rubin and Metin Heper. London: Frank Cass, 2002. 41-61. Kritzer, Amelia Howe. Political Theatre in Post-Thatcher Britain: New Writing: 1995-2005 . Basingstoke: Palgrave


Arts can provide an alternative to violence and the opportunity to give a voice to the oppressed. Music, arts and theatre can become acts of defiance, a form of resistance, or a simple bridge of reconciliation. Creativity in arts give the community the opportunity to exceed certain boundaries and urges the individuals to see the potential in them and in the whole world. We will analize, therefore, the relations between theatre and war, trying to analize contemporary examples of global conflict zones: theatrical protests against war, performances by refugees and the impact of these in education. Using theatre as a form of awareness of human rights, we are not educating only the audience – we also lead to public awareness, empathy and people-to-people relationships. The vision of a theatre that connects thoughts, feelings and actions represents a powerfull symbol of a democratic society. Theatre, as the most public of art forms, embracing the other arts under it’s hat, can become a form of remodeling a society, using our imagination.


The present paper starts, in its analysis, with the attempt to identify possible connections between the mythical universe and Eugène Ionesco’s play The Chairs. Noticing that the definition given to Ionesco’s theatre as a theatre of the absurd is outdated and that alternative concepts, such as parabolic drama, are already being proposed, we examine Ionesco’s theatricality from the perspective of the anti-theatre. Also, due to the fact that theatre is defined, by the representatives of political theatre, as ritual, we make a few considerations upon Ionesco’s anti-theatre viewed as anti-ritual. Afterwards, evaluating the different definitions of the myth and concluding that its definition is still a work in progress, we seek to extract arguments in order to look into Ionesco’s play from the point of view of the myth. Thus, we remark that a certain myth, underpinning the play, cannot be identified, but we have the possibility to identify and to argue that this play has a mythical horizon. At the same time, we take into consideration our personal experience with the performance of The Chairs that we put on stage, an experience that, also, constitutes a point of reference in our approach. Consequently, we suggest that references to a mythical horizon must be involved in the scenic interpretation of Eugène Ionesco's The Chairs.


Theatre as an institution and form of contemporary art encourages freedom and creativity, attracts free spirits and visions and it should be a physical and spiritual space in which you can find and express your identity at the same time. If in the state system decisions on the budget are taken at a political level and those on the repertoire have to take into account a whole organizational scheme and a large audience, in the independent space, tolerance, acceptance of differences, encouragement of minorities of any kind to express themselves through art, as long as there are talent and ideas that can be transposed in a scenic way, the debate of the taboo subjects for the society should be a priority. Even if financially the independent artists are working on truly desirable projects and with funding that sometimes comes from the state, the constraints that are reflected on the final product are not as large as in the state system, there is no repertoire to be respected. Of course, the productions in the independent environment have to attract audiences, but performances and experiments are getting faster to the public. In Romania, political theatre, community theatre, the theatre that militates for important causes needs courageous artists, artists who use their imagination, their creativity, their critical voice for causes that few believe in. The intimacy that independent spaces can offer to the artists and to the public to create a bond and to reveal their existential fears, aesthetical and ethical principles to which they adhere, makes these spaces a fertile ground for original artistic projects such as Giuvlipen.

, Theatre Record , 21.3 (2001): 137. Kritzer, Amelia Howe. Political Theatre in Post-Thatcher Britain. New Writing: 1995-2005 . Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Laplanche, Jean and J.-B. Pontalis. The Language of Psychoanalysis . Trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith. London: The Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis, 1973. -----------. Serial Killers: Death and Life in America’s Wound Culture . London: Routledge,1998. Luckhurst, Roger. “Traumaculture”. New Formations 50 (2003): 28-47. Oliver, Kelly. Witnessing. Beyond Recognition . Minneapolis

. Carpenter, Sarah and Meg Twycross. 2002. Masks and Masking in Medieval and Early Tudor England. Aldershot and Burlington: Ashgate. Davidson, Clifford. 2001. Gesture in Medieval Drama and Art. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications. Davidson, Clifford. 1991. Positional Symbolism and English Medieval Drama. Comparative Drama vol. 25 no. 1: 66-76. Davidson, Clifford. 1989. Visualizing the Moral Life: Medieval Iconography and the Macro Morality Plays. New York: AMS Press. Fischer-Lichte, Erika. 2005. Theatre, Sacrifice, Ritual: Exploring Forms of Political Theatre. New

-fear-andfreedom-playwright Kushner, T., 1997. “Notes about Political Theater.” In The Kenyon Review, vol. 19 no. 3-4, pp. 19-34 Mamet, D., “The Problem Play.” In: Senelick, L. (ed.). The American Stage: Writing on Theater from Washington Irving to Tony Kushner. New York: Library of America, pp. 807-813. McCartin, B. and Paine, T. 2002. Common Sense and Revolutionary Pamphleteering. New York: PowerPlus Books. Nussbaum, M. C., 2012. Not for Profit: Why Democracy Needs the Humanities. Princeton, N.J, Woodstock: Princeton University Press. Otrísalová, L., 2015. “(Re)inscribing Blackness onto the

Cristian Popescu synthesizes the beginnings of the independent theatre in Romania and the attempts to build a coherent artistic movement, Iulia Popovici, Cristina Modreanu, and Olivia Grecea choose as a point of reference certain tendencies, namely documentary theatre, political theatre, feminist theatre, devised theatre and collaborative practices. So, we have a perspective on the beginnings of independent theatre offered by a director-researcher and some analyses made by theatre critics with experience on various types of theatre. Like any living phenomenon