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6. REFERENCES Ahamed, Emajuddin (2015, 27 October,): Democracy in Bangladesh: Prospects and Problems , Daily Sun. Retrieved from . Bäck, M., & Christensen, H. S. (2011). Social trust and Political Participation–A multilevel analysis of 25 European democracies . Working paper. Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J. G. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory and research for the sociology of education (pp. 241-258). New York: Greenwood. Brady, H. E


Holding a meeting or demonstration is a constitutional right (Art. 43 of the Constitution). The order is defined in the Law on gatherings, meetings and manifestations, and every municipal council shall issue an ordinance regulating the details for conducting such events in their country. However, the ongoing protests and counter-protests in Bulgaria have caused debates regarding the mass gatherings out in the open under the Bulgarian Law on gatherings, meetings and manifestations. Entered into force on 2.02.1990, the law does not seem a sufficient answer to the people's expectations for responsiveness to current conditions and dynamic public relations. The present article aims to indicate new practices in the forms of political participation in Bulgaria in 2013.


This article presents a study of how politically engaged young people use social media for political purposes. There has been a growing optimism that social media can stimulate political participation and deliberation, especially among young people. Based on focus group interviews with Norwegian teenagers, the article argues that social media have become an important platform for young people to participate in political activities. Whether the purpose is internal meetings or external mobilization, social media provide platforms for planning, reporting and communicating political activities. At the same time, politically engaged young people are hesitant about using social media for political deliberation. They are concerned about how they present themselves, and they are reluctant to stand out as highly political. One important explanation for this is that social media integrate different forms of communication and collapse social contexts. This causes teenagers to delimit controversies and try to keep political discussions to groups with more segregated audiences.

of party-user interactions? The examination is based on interviews with the social media managers of the nine parties that are represented in the Danish parliament. The interviews are analysed through an inductive qualitative coding, establishing key themes, narratives and perceptions towards social media users as an audience, as content-producers and as democratic citizens. The presented findings are discussed through the conceptual vocabulary of Carpentier ( 2011 , 2017 ), who defines political participation as processes of co-deciding, conditioned by access and


For the past four years autonomous spaces that vary in nature but are run by virtually the same group of people have been operating in Kaunas, Lithuania. In the Lithuanian context, they are one of the most prominent recent attempts at continuous radical leftist political infrastructure. In the Central and Eastern European context, they are peculiar for not being connected to public housing struggles. This article draws an outline of their modes of operation and paradigmatic shifts by examining their history as well as theoretical and sociological material and using extensive interviews conducted with participants. Awareness of the complicated relation between meaningful separation and broader participation is suggested as a reflexive means of becoming hubs of political involvement.

Ethnic Minority Policies and Political Parties' Appeal to Ethnic Voters: A Case Study of Estonia's Russians

Focusing on a case study of Estonia's major political parties' relations with the ethnic Russian electorate, the article examines the role of ethnic minority policies in the electoral appeal of nation-wide parties towards the ethnic minority electorate, attempting to assess whether pursuing efficient minority-related policies is a necessary precondition for a nation-wide party achieving electoral success among ethnic voters, and whether the migration of an ethnic minority electorate from ethnic parties to mainstream parties can be considered a sign of successful accommodation. Applying the theoretical concept of "informational shortcuts", the article assesses persuasion strategies employed by Estonian political parties in their appeal towards the minority electorate, exemplifying the ways in which mainstream political parties can consolidate their monopoly over ethnic voters without prioritizing special minority-related policies.

of further research, is the effects of social capital on resilience. Crime, here used as a proxy for trust in the community, has a negative impact on resilience. This result is to be expected. Somewhat contradictory to this is the finding that political participation has a negative impact on resilience. That is to say, regions with higher voter turnout were more vulnerable to the recent recession. Measurements of social capital are difficult achieve, but it is important that the effects that social capital has on resilience be further researched, particularly in


). The responses were not merely symbolic: An Independent ( Merrill 2015 ) news story the day after Kurdi’s death reported how relief and solidarity organisations experienced a surge in donations and citizens offering help. In recent years, studies of activism and political participation have seen growing interest in the relationship between photographs and activism (e.g. Biggs 2005 ; Martin 2005 ; Arpan et al. 2006 ; Gray & Martin 2008 ; Greer & McLaughlin 2010 ; Halfmann & Young 2010 ; Corrigall-Brown & Wilkes 2012 ; Olesen 2013 , 2017 ; Doerr et al. 2013


Within the framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Lakoff and Johnson 1980) and Critical Discourse Analysis (van Dijk 1993, Wodak 2006) we analyse in this paper the results of a survey conducted among 100 women and 20 men in order to establish the level of their understanding of sport metaphors in political discourse. The results indicate that sport metaphors may pose a serious barrier to women’s understanding of political life and may discourage women’s political participation.


This article compares the actual patterns of agencification and depoliticisation in Lithuania and explains the extent to which the EU influenced these changes. Our research employs (descriptive and inferential) statistical analysis of data on the organisational changes of Lithuanian agencies and the political participation of their managers in the 1990-2012 period. The article found that the EU made a significant contribution to the establishment of new agencies but changes in the scope of politicisation can be explained by a combination of evolution in the political conditionality of EU membership and wholesale government changes. The differentiated impact of the EU on public administration changes was observed with the management of the Europeanised agencies becoming increasingly professional over time. Overall, the results of our research confirm the stronger and more enduring impact of specific acquis rules in the policy domain compared to the much weaker influence of the EU’s political conditionality.