In Said´s notion of “Orientalism” as a set of discursive practices through which the West structured the imagined East, the Czech Republic (or former Czechoslovakia) in particular, and so called Eastern Europe in general, has been viewed by “the West” as a space inhabited by “exotic other”. The former socialist countries (and the so called post-socialist countries) have been constructing their own “Orients” and “exotic others” as well including Noble Savage stereotype of Native Americans. This paper focuses on a visual (re)presentation of a meeting between people who might have mutually constructed each other as the “exotic other”. Based on filming of a visit of a Native American sport team competing in the Czech Republic, the paper would like to discuss who are the “exotic ones” and for whom and the methodological issues related to the creation of the cross-cultural ethnographic films.
Racial representations on commodities in Danish supermarkets have been the subject of heated public debates about race and racism in recent years. Through an analysis of a 2014 media debate about the so-called ‘racist liquorice’, the article suggests that the fight for the right to consume racialized products sheds light on how ‘epistemologies of ignorance’ of race and colonialism operate in Denmark. Focusing on how questions of history, memory and nationhood feature in the media texts, the article introduces the concepts of retro racism and racialized affective consumption to capture the affective and historical dynamics at play in debates on racism in Denmark. While the former term points to how racism becomes positioned as something always already retrograde in a Danish context, the latter relates to how a rhetoric of pleasure and enjoyment gets mobilized in the sustaining of a whitewashed image of Danish national community.
RES 11 (2/2019), p. 237-252 DOI: 10.2478/ress-2019-0017
Facing Anti-Judaism in the Romanian Orthodox
Church: Why the Need to Accommodate the Biblical
and the Liturgical Texts?
The modern problem of politicalcorrectness appeared recently in the Romanian
Orthodox Church too and produced different reactions. In this paper I want to
discuss the anti-Judaic language that can be encountered in the cult, particularly
during the Holy Week, and the solutions to treat these expressions. In the Catholic
and Protestant world, the anti-Judaic speech
References Annamalai, E. (1979). Movement for Linguistic Purism: the Case of Tamil. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. Babbie, E. (2013). The practice of social research. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning. Beckwith, F.J. & Bauman, M. (1993). Are you politicallycorrect? New York: Prometheus Books. Bleifuss, J. (2007). A PoliticallyCorrect Lexicon. In These Times, vol. 31, pp. 1-13 (3027). Cameron, D. (2005). Language, gender and sexuality: Current issues and new directions. Applied Linguistics, 26 (4), 482-502. Dunning, E. (1986). Sport as a male
countries While the content analysis gave us a general idea of the overall similarities and differences between the two data sets, this step of the analysis allows us to unpack in more detail the central frames that characterise the coverage in both countries. Through the analytical process, four distinct frames emerged: #metoo as (1) personal testimony, (2) social movement, (3) politicalcorrectness, and (4) witch hunt. Whereas the first two frames legitimise and essentially support the message and meanings condensed into the hashtag (however multivalent and ambiguous
The aim of the article is to discuss the legal language transformations from a diachronic perspective taking into account the following factors: (i) spatial and temporal, (ii) linguistic norm changes, (iii) political, (iv) social (customs), and (v) globalization as well as (vi) EU-induced. Spatial and temporal factors include legal relations influenced by climate and the cycles of nature. Linguistic factors include spelling reforms and grammatical changes each language undergoes, for example, as a result of usage. As far as the law is concerned, normative changes can be observed when laws are amended. Other factors such as customs, usage, etc. cannot be neglected when discussing the language of the law. Analogously political correctness and usage can be observed in gender sensitive language and the introduction of such terms as chairperson instead of chairman. Social factors should not be overlooked. As a result of social changes, numerous terms have been introduced to legal lexicons in many countries starting with same-sex unions or same-sex-marriages. The so-called political correctness enforces some language changes and leads to the introduction of new terms and at the same time the abandonment of others. Consequently, some terms cease to be used and consequently become archaic. The aim of the article is to focus on diachronic changes in legal languages and present the communication problems resulting from them from intra- and inter-lingual perspectives.
The paper focuses on the notion of disability in the documents of selected international organisations. The social model approach to disability has been implemented since the second half of the 20th century and consequently such terms as ‘invalid’, ‘madman’, ‘dumb’, ‘cripple’, ‘paralytic’, ‘the lame’ or ‘the blind’ were removed from the literature, legal acts, or documents of international organisations. Notions like ‘disability’, ‘disabled person’, or ‘a person with disability’ are considered ‘politically correct’ now. It is worth highlighting however that great emphasis is put to replace the term ‘a disabled person’ with the term ‘a person with a disability or disabilities” as the latter notion does not refer to the person’s characteristics with one adjective only, hence it does not stigmatize him/her either. The trend is reflected in the terminology used in the documents and acts introduced at the international level. Nevertheless, there are still a lot of difficulties with translation into other languages, which is also the Polish case.
The purpose of this introductory article is to set the stage for the theme issue on the 22 July 2011 terror attacks in Oslo and Utøya by mass murderer, Anders Behring Breivik. The article opens up with the historical and literary figure Erostratus to discuss the differences and similarities between this lone wolf character and the acts of terrorist Anders Behring Breivik. It then situates Breivik firmly within an ideological landscape where communities of politicians, pundits and others distance themselves from Breivik’s terrorising acts, yet in the end share his basic criticism of “multiculturalism” appearing synonymous with “cultural Marxism” as well as subscribing to what goes under the term of Eurabia conspiracy. In addition, through centring on other catch-all concept of political correctness, the clusters of different anti-migration, anti-feminism and Islamophobic opposition are united together in news articles in a way not unlike the media coverage (and academic analyses) of the Danish Muhammad cartoon affair.
This article analyzes the manner in which James Hynes’s novel The Lecturer’s Tale (2001) can be read as a satire of what Bill Readings identified in his influential The University in Ruins (1996) as the “posthistorical university.” I argue that, in the contemporary context in which higher education establishments are becoming more like corporations and the idea of culture is replaced by the “discourse of excellence,” Hynes’s novel offers an insightful discussion of universities’ negotiation of the Scylla of the pursuit of profit and the Charybdis of self-absorbed literary theorizing and its association with political correctness, the exploitation of junior and non-tenured faculty, and the quest for academic stardom. At the same time, I discuss the way in which the Gothic elements that permeate the novel fittingly double and deepen the critique of contemporary educational establishments and professors.
The paper deals with the construction of race from the perspective of cognitive sociolinguistics. The focus is upon the perception of mixed-race people of black and white heritage in Poland and Germany compared to the USA, and its reflection in language use. The study clarifies in how far a socially marked perception of biracial people applies in these countries with very small population of black ancestry. Among other things, the first presidential campaign of Barack Obama is used to investigate the occurrence in both countries of mental colouring of biracial people. The paper also reflects the language debate on political correctness of the press language, sparked off by the presidential campaign and its media coverage. It presents claims and arguments by proponents of various solutions regarding referring to biracial people, and paradoxes showing up in the relationship between language use and ideological positions when the race issue is at stake.