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.), Entrepreneurship in the Polis: UnderstandingPolitical Entrepreneurship (pp. 151-170). Burlington, VT: Ashgate. David, C.-P., & Barthe, S. (2013). Entrepreneurs decision making: theexample of national security policies of the G. W. Bush administration(2001-2004). Canadian Journal of Political Science-Revue Canadienne DeScience Politique, 46(3), 549-574. doi: 10.1017/s0008423913000851 Dolowitz, D. P. (2000). Introduction. Governance, 13(1), 1-4.doi: 10.1111/0952-1895.00120 Dolowitz, D., & Marsh, D. (1996). Who Learns What from Whom: aReview of the Policy Transfer Literature

. Banting K, 2010, ‘Is there a progressive’s dilemma in Canada? Immigration, multiculturalism and the welfare state’, Canadian Journal of Political Science, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 797-820. DOI: 10.1017/S0008423910000983. Banting, K & Kymlicka, W 2006, Multiculturalism and the welfare state, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Bennett, CJ 1991, ‘How states utilize foreign evidence’, Journal of Public Policy, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 31-54. Doi:10.1017/ S0143814X0000492X Benson, D & Jordan, A 2011, ‘What have we learned from policy transfer research? Dolowitz and Marsh revisited

References Abouassi, Khaldoun. 2010. “International Development Management Th rough a Southern Lens.” Public Administration and Development 30, 116 - 123. Bennett, Colin. 1991. “How States Utilize Foreign Evidence.” Journal of Public Policy 33, 4. Benson, David and Andrew Jordan. 2011. “What Have We Learned from Policy Transfer Research: Dolowitz and Marsh Revisited.” Political Studies Review 9, 366 - 378. Blunt, Peter; Mark Turner and Henrik Lindroth. 2012. “Patronage’s Progress in Post-Soeharto Indonesia.” Public Administration and Development 32(1), 64 - 81


The transformation of urban policy, resulting from ‘creative industries’ policy developments, is explored in this article, with respect to the Baltic capitals. Policy initiatives in the creative industries in Central and Eastern European cities have predominantly developed through policy transfers from Western Europe, with its long-term market economy experience. How adaptable are such policies for post-socialist cities? Using the concept of social innovation, this article describes mechanisms that facilitate policy acceptance and examines whether and how the development of creative industries has resulted in urban policy renewal in the Baltic capitals.


This paper argues that EU accession has brought about minimal changes in the patterns of innovation in Hungary. The reason why is not that the ‘EU factor’ is of minor importance; rather, it is Hungary's inability to use EU resources effectively, so as to fully benefit from EU membership. The Hungarian story also demonstrates that the EU cannot block member states from reversing reform or abusing the opportunities EU membership offers to them. We contend that globalization (global value chain integration) has more effectively contributed to Hungary's knowledge-based upgrading than Europeanization (in the sense of policy transfer; access to EU Structural & Cohesion Funds, and integration in the European Research Area). This argument is substantiated with a case study on innovation strategy design and implementation, which illustrates the ambiguous impact of Europeanization, which is contrasted with our investigation of integration in global value chains, conducted through interviews of foreign-owned manufacturing companies about their R&D-based upgrading experience.


This paper provides a polemic interpretation of recent Hungarian public-administration reforms compared to the opinions that can be found in international scientific literature. The divergence of the various interpretations stems from the different perspectives on the historic context of the development path of the Hungarian municipal administration during the pre- and post-regime change period. The differences in the interpretation of the achievements of the regime change determine whether one would suggest a minor correction or a total replacement - if given the possibility. After briefly describing the public-administration legacy of the communist past and of the post-communist decades, the article delves into the analysis of the financial unsustainability of the highly decentralized local-government system. The analysis builds on the findings of international financiers that operate as policy- transfer powerhouses, as well. Bursting financial tensions led to Hungary’s loan agreement with the IMF in 1996. Although the loan was paid back by 1998, internal systemic inefficiencies stemming from the uneasy compromises of the regime change still had their corroding effect, although vulnerable finances were veiled by occasional conjunctures in the domestic and international economy. In the year 2008, the country became virtually insolvent and again applied for an IMF loan. The IMF itself formulated certain measures to increase the efficiency of the overdecentralized local-government system. Unlike its predecessor, the government that stepped into power in 2010 had the political power to launch systemic corrections in the local-government system. The reforms contained a trade-off : the majority of local competences in exchange for fiscally consolidating local governments. This is labeled as a trade-off between efficiency and democracy by certain authors. It is a fact that the overdecentralized form of local public administration was inefficient and unsustainable. Now there is an opportunity to test whether an overcentralized public administration would be efficient.

References Bennett, C. (1991). What is policy convergence and what causes it? British Journal of Political Science, 21 (1), 215-33. Benson, D., & Jordan, A. (2011). What have we learned from policy transfer research? Dolowitz and Marsh revisited. Political studies review, 9 (3), 366-78. Beresford, P. (Ed.) (2014). Personalisation. Bristol: Policy Press. Birrell, D., & Heenan, D. (2014). Integrated care partnerships in Northern Ireland: Added value or added bureaucracy? Journal of Integrated care, 22 (6), 197-207. Campbell, J., & McLaughlin, J. (2000). The ‘joined

References Annual report for completion of program for rural regions development (2007-2013г.) in Bulgaria for the period 1 January 2010 - 31 December 2010 . Biderman, A., Kazior, B, Serafin, R., Szmigielski, P., 2004. Building partnership. A practical manual. Polish Environmental Partnership Foundation, Kraków. Chevalier, P., Maurel, C., 2010. Policy Transfer of the Local Development Model. The Leader Program Implementation in Central European countries , Regional Studies Assotiation Annual International Conference , Pécs, Hungary, 24th -26th May 2010

References Colebatch, H. K., Hoppe, R. and Noordegraaf, M. (2010). Understanding policy work. In: H. K. Colebatch, R. Hoppe and M. Noordegraaf (eds.): Working for Policy. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 11-25. Dolowitz, D. and Marsh, D. (1996). Who learns what from whom: a review of the policy transfer literature. Political Studies 21:343-351. Dror, Y. (1979) Think tanks: a new invention in government. In: Weiss, C. H. and Barton, A.H. (eds.): Making Bureaucracies Work. pp. 139-152. Beverly Hills: Sage. Freeman, R. and Sturdy, S. (eds.) (2014) Knowledge in

system”, The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 32, 447-457. Dolowitz, D. P., & Marsh, D. (2000) “Learning from abroad: The role of policy transfer in contemporary policy-making”, An International Journal of Policy and Administration, 13, 1, 5-24. Dye, T. R. (2008) Understanding public policy, 12th Edition, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Erten, Ş. & Aktel, M. (2016) “Ulusal program ve düzenli ilerleme raporları çerçevesine Türkiye’nin engelli politikaları”, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi 21, 4, 1275