References Bednárová, E. - Grambličková, D . (2007) Vplyv materiálových jám na filtračnú stabilitu poldra Borša (Effect of material pits on the filtration stability of the Borša polder), Bratislava, Slovakia: SvF STU, 47 pp. Satrapa, L. - Valenta, P. (1997) Foundation of the Mseno Dam; analysis and the study of remedial measures. In: Sanierung und Modernisierung von Wasserbauwerken, aktuele Beispiele aus Deutschland, Polen, der Slowakei und Tschechie. Dresden: Technische Universität Dresden, , p. 83-90. ISBN 3-86005-185-7 Satrapa, L. - Brouček, M. - Pechar
As an effective way of flood prevention it is widely accepted to construct flood embankments. These structures are getting bigger as the river changes from meandring to successive development of floodplain and narrowing the embankment. Meanwhile, it is worth returning old solutions and reactivating old floodplain polders. There are currently three polders on the central Odra River: Kiełcz-Tarnów-Bycki – with a capacity of approximately 15 million m3, Połupin – with a capacity of 70 million m3 and Krzesin-Bytomiec – with a capacity of 20 million m3. Three further reservoirs are designed in: Urad – 30 million ha, Słubice Górzyca – 60 million ha and Ługi Górzyckie – 30 million ha. The authors propose additionally a reactivation of seven archival polders, with total capacity of approximately 4.9 million m3.
References Acosta, J.A. - Jansen, B. - Kalbitz, K. - Faz, A. - Martínez-Martínez, S. 2011. Salinity Increases Mobility Of Heavy Metals In Soils. In Chemosphere, Vol. 85, No. 8, Pp. 1318‒1324. Doi: 10.16/J.Chemosphere.2011.07.046 Adoum, A.A. - Moulin, P. - Brossard, M. 2017. Pioneering Assessment Of Carbon Stock In Polder Soils Developed In Inter-Dune Landscapes In A Semiarid Climate, Lake Chad. In Comptes Rendus Geoscience, Vol. 349, No. 1, Pp. 22-31. Doi: 10.1016/J.Crte.2016.08.003 Asaah, V.A. - Abimbola, A.F. - Suh, C.E. 2006. Heavy Metal Concentrations And
Existing river valley development methods which have been used for a significant period of time, as well as the use of land for construction of residential developments, have led to negative consequences for the environment. The agricultural use of land and its protection with hydraulic structures has restricted the natural flood area of the river. According to EU law, the risk of catastrophic flooding should be reduced, and its effects minimized. Sustainable water management determines the effectiveness of flood protection in the whole river basin. The paper presents the flood protection on the Odra River in the segment between Nowa Sól and Cigacice, with special emphasis on the possibility of reconstructing the former flood polders in the Middle Odra Region that existed before the year 1945, including the polder in Milsko.
Digital Elevation Models have been an important topic in the last decades in order to accurately describe one’s surroundings for various purposes. The most wide-spread applications of Digital Elevation Modelling are related to volumetric calculations over large areas, as well as to hydrographic simulations. This paper will analyse the impact of various data interpolation models on the result of volumetric calculations in a longitudinal shaped polder. In order to achieve general conclusions instead of case specific solutions, the raw parametric Digital Elevation Models have been used, rather than the specific parameters suiting the actual scenario. In order to achieve this, data smoothing has also been neglected. The result of the conducted study presents the impact of the digital elevation modelling methods over the volumetric calculations. When applied to the same dataset, the methods yielded different results, partially confirming the predicted usefulness of the algorithms.
. Geotech. 5: 208–213 (in Polish). Bogdanowicz R., 2004, Hydrologiczne uwarunkowania transportu wybranych związków azotu i fosforu Odrą i Wisłą oraz rzekami Przymorza do Bałtyku (Hydrological factors influencing transport of selected nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the Odra River, the Vistula River and Polish coastal rivers to the Baltic Sea), Wyd. UG, Gdańsk, 160 pp. (in Polish, English summary). Cebulak K., 1984, Gospodarka polderowa (Utylization of polders), [in:] Augustowski B. (ed.), Pobrzeże Pomorskie (Pomeranian coast), GTN-Ossolineum: 229–255 (in Polish
The erosion, transport and deposition of sediments in small valley reservoirs represent a significant impact on their operations, mainly with regard to reducing the volume of their accumulation. The aim of this study is a comparison and uncertainty analysis of two modelling concepts for assessment of soil loss and sediment transport in a small agricultural catchment, with an emphasis on estimating the off-site effects of soil erosion resulted in sedimentation of a small water reservoir. The small water reservoir (polder) of Svacenicky Creek which was built in 2012, is a part of the flood protection measures in Turá Lúka and is located in the western part of Slovakia, close to the town of Myjava. The town of Myjava in recent years has been threatened by frequent floods, which have caused heavy material losses and significantly limited the quality of life of the local residents. To estimate the amount of soil loss and sediments transported from the basin, we applied two modelling concepts based on the USLE/SDR and WaTEM/SEDEM erosion models and validated the results with the actual bathymetry of the polder. The measurements were provided by a modern Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) hydrographic instrument. From the sediment data measured and the original geodetic survey of the terrain conducted at the time of the construction of the polder, we calculated changes in the storage volume of the polder during its four years of operation. The results show that in the given area, there has been a gradual clogging of the bottom of the polder caused by water erosion. We estimate that within the four years of the acceptance run, 10,494 m3 of bottom sediments on the Svacenicky Creek polder have accumulated. It therefore follows that repeated surveying of the sedimentation is very important for the management of the water reservoir.
In parallel with intensified development of the Polish part of Uznam Island, there is an increase in the demand for drinking water in this area. This island ranks among areas with low water resources, which at the present time are allocated. In order to create the prospect of increased groundwater resources, a concept has been developed that allows for the recovery of part of the freshwater from drainage systems which discharge into the waters of Szczecin Lagoon or the River Świna. The present article discusses the secondary use of water from drainage systems for supply of the Wydrzany resource area. The notion of using water from the White Bridge pumping station was considered the most promising. The catchment area of the polder is 880 ha, 280 ha of which are located on Polish territory. The White Bridge pumping station transfers water from the polder, which it leads to the Peat Channel which, in turn, drains water gravitationally into Szczecin Lagoon. Here, results of simulations aimed at the use of drainage water to improve upon groundwater resources in the “Wydrzany” intake are discussed. On the basis of these simulations of artificial water supply to the intake, an increase of available resources by up to 50 per cent may be expected.
Neutron Bragg Diffraction on a Bent Silicon Single Crystal Excited by Ultrasound
The neutron Bragg diffraction on a bent silicon monocrystal excited by ultrasound was investigated. It is shown that for perfect crystal the relative diffraction intensity is proportional to the acoustic wave amplitude w. The calibration parameters between the generator voltage and acoustic wave amplitude were derived assuming w = (2.3±0.3)·10-2 Å/V. To explain the results, a modified Penning—Polder—Kato model was applied. In a bent crystal, owing to ultrasound, transitions between the sheets of a dispersion surface take place. This leads to various manifestations of the behaviour of the integral scattering intensity, which drastically differs from the case of a perfect crystal. The observed effects may be used for creating new types of neutron monochromators and choppers governed by the ultrasound wave amplitude as well as by the length and bending radius of the crystal.
Traditional methods of economic evaluation of projects in the field of environmental protection do not reflect the full value of these projects. In particular, it doesn’t take into account non-market effects that have an impact on the level of social welfare. The issue of valuation of natural resources and related services is also related to this problem. The evaluations and valuations of areas generally ignored the value of natural resources or take into account only the part which has the market value.
The article presents the results of study the economy of non-market goods using contingent valuation method. The first part of the results concerns the willingness to pay for improvement of safety sense from flood risk. The second part concerns willingness to pay for the use of municipal sewage treatment plants. The population living of the area of the Żuławy of Vistula delta valued their improvement of safety sense from flood risk of at more than twice the value of the compared to current expenditures incurred flood protection. The vast majority of respondents considered it reasonable protection of polder areas. Indicating simultaneously that in the reduction of flood risk allows possible resettlement and restoration polder parts. The majority of residents (98%) agreed to the construction of wastewater treatment plants and were willing to pay for its construction and operation. The majority of respondents (especially those in middle age and older) found that the collective sewage development would contribute to improving the environment quality and thus the residents living standard. However, not all were willing to pay for the use of collective sewage collection and treatment. 18% of respondents did not want to pay an amount greater than the current charges for the sewage removal and treatment. In addition, the residents of the municipality cannot afford to pay, or believe that water supply and sanitation services should be free.