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References Barjak, F., 2001: Regional disparities in transition economies: a typology for East Germany and Poland. In: Post-Communist Economies, Vol. 13, pp. 289-311. DOI: Benedek, J. and Kocziszky, G., 2015: Paths of Convergence and Polarization in the Visegrád Countries. In: Lang, T., Henn, S., Sgibnev, W. and Ehrlich, K. editors, Understanding Geographies of Polarization and Peripheralization, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 217-234. Bernard, J. and Šimon, M., 2017: Vnitřní periferie v Česku

–331. Musterd S., Ostendorf W. 1998. Segregation, polarisation and social exclusion in metropolitan areas. [in:] Musterd S., Ostendorf W. (eds.) Urban Segregation and the Welfare State: Inequality and Exclusion in Western Cities . Routledge, London. Otto M., Chmielewska M. 2012. Revitalisation for everybody? The Landscape Park Duisburg – North. Acta Geogr. Silesiana , 12: 27-40. Otto M., Chmielewska M. 2014. Social Inclusion by Revitalization? The Potential of Disused Industrial Areas As an Opportunity for Mitigating Social Polarization. Quaestiones Geogr ., 33

1 Introduction There are two competing processes in the spatial organisation of economy and in the development of regions: polarisation and levelling, the former being more widespread. The works of F. Perroux, J. Boudeville, J. Friedmann ( Perroux, 1955 ; Boudeville, 1966 ; Friedmann, 1967 ) and later P. Krugman ( Krugman, 1991 ) are a valuable contribution to the development of the theory of polarisation. At the same time, the governments of many countries allocate significant funds to support lagging regions, implementing a levelling policy. The European

References ACEMOGLU, D. (1998). Why do new technologies complement skills? Directed technical change and wage inequality. The Quarterly Journal of Economics , 113(4), 1055-1089. DOI: 10.1162/003355398555838 ACEMOGLU, D.; AUTOR, D. H. (2011). Skills, tasks and technologies: Implications for employment and earnings. In: Handbook of labor economics . Elsevier. p. 1043-1171. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-7218(11)02410-5 . AMOROSO, S.; MONCADA-PATERNÒ-CASTELLO, P. (2018). Inward greenfield FDI and patterns of job polarization. Sustainability , 10.4: 1219. DOI: 10.3390/su

* Economic polarization was calculated only for countries that have five or more regions at the NUTS 2 level. References Atkinson, W. (1975). The Economics of Inequality . London: Oxford University Press. Birchenall, J. (2001). Income distribution, human capital and economic growth in Colombia. Journal of Development Economics , 66 (1), 271–287. Esteban, J. (1994). La desigualdad interregional en Europa y en España: descripción y análisis. In: Crecimiento y convergencia regional en España y Europa . Institut d’Analisi Económica, Fundación de Economía


This study is devoted to socio-spatial polarisation with regard to the rural environment in Slovakia. In fact, ongoing polarisation processes do not take place only in the rural-urban continuum, but within every single category as well. This is evident especially in the rural environment, which has begun to change significantly in terms of its structure and to diversify to a greater extent. As a result, some parts of the countryside began to stagnate and decline gradually. These parts of the rural environment can thus be referred to as marginal, peripheral. With respect to the proclaimed diversity of the rural environment, this study focuses on selected rural structures, namely mountain areas, the borderland, and the area at the intersection of those two structures. Generally, these parts of the rural environment are often confronted with the phenomenon of marginality and peripherality, and because of the given local predisposition are even more vulnerable to its manifestations. Taking into account the dynamism and multidimensional character of this phenomenon, we can further assume that its manifestation changes in time and space. With the use of ANOVA, we examine a set of selected indicators of socio-spatial polarisation and verify whether and to what extent this dynamism depends on the character of diversified rural structures.

Introduction The electrodes used in dielectric and impedance spectroscopy can have several different shapes, materials, roughness, and polarities. At low frequencies, the metallic and semiconductor electrodes produce a polarization effect between the interface of electrode and sample. When a metallic electrode and an electrolytic medium are placed in contact, an electrochemical double layer is generated on the electrode surface due to the distribution of dissimilar ions between the solid and liquid phase [ 1 ]. This charge distribution produces an electric field


This paper presents an investigation on corrosion behavior of Sn-1.0Ag-0.5Cu-XAl (X = 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0) by means of polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The results show that addition of aluminum into SAC105 shifts the corrosion current density and passivation current density towards more positive values. It is also found that with an increase in aluminum concentration in SAC105 solder alloy, the corrosion current density increases and polarization resistance decreases. This suggests that SAC105 with the highest concentration of Al has the lowest corrosion resistance. In this case, the corrosion behavior seems to be attributed to anodic dissolution of aluminum and Sn-matrix.

References 1. Kumar, A., & Ghatak, A. (2011). Polarisation of Light with Applications in Optical Fibres. Bellingham: SPIE. 2. ITU-T Rec. G.650.2. (2005). Definitions and Test Methods for Statistical and Non-Linear Related Attributes of Single-Mode Fibre and Cable, pp. 2-18. 3. ITU-T Rec.G.652. (2016). Characteristics of a Single-Mode Optical Fibre and Cable. 4. Yasin, M., Harun, S.W., & Arof, H. (2012). Optical Fibre Communications and Devices. Rijeka: InTech. 5. Porins, J., Bobrovs, V., Markevics, K., & Supe, A. (2013). Comparison of reliability of ADSS cables

. Measurement of the microphisical characteristics of clouds and precipitation with a dual – polarization radar . Artificial modification of atmospheric processes in Moldova, iss 2, Kiscineu. Dinevich L., Kapitalchuk I., Schupjatsky A. 1994. Use of the polarization selection of radar signals for remote sounding of clouds and precipitation . 34th Israel Annual conference on Aerospace science, pp. 273-277. Dinevich L., Kaplan L. 1999. On radar observation of birds migrations . J. Scientific Israel – Technological Advantages 4. Dinevich L, Leshem Y., Sikora O. 2001. R adar