1. Amar, M., Ariely, D. Bar-Hillel, M., Cameron Z. si Ofir, C. (2011). Brand names act like marketing placebos. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem - Center for the Study of Rationality, discussion paper 566 (February), 1-7, Jerusalem, Israel
2. Benedetti, F., Mayberg, H. S., Wager, T. D., Sohler, C. S., &Zubieta, J. K. (2005). Neurobiological mechanisms of the placebo effect. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 10390-10402.
3. Erickson, G. M., Johansson, J. K., & Chao, P. (1984). Image variables in
Saithip Suttiruksa, Suwimon Yeephu, Pradit Prateepavanich and Chuthamanee Suthisisang
2 wk before starting the study. The baseline SF-36 QoL was completed by all HVs and patients with FMS.
The efficacy of mirtazapine in patients with FMS
We enrolled 40 patients with FMS into a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial designed to assess the efficacy of mirtazapine. The patients were allocated using a block size of 3 in a ratio of 1:1:1 with parallel assignment to 1 of 3 groups as follows: placebo, mirtazapine 15 mg/day, or mirtazapine 30 mg/d using a pharmacy-controlled randomization process with sequentially
Danica Michalickova, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljevic, Milica Miljkovic, Nenad Dikic, Marija Kostic-Vucicevic, Marija Andjelkovic, Vladimir Koricanac and Brizita Djordjevic
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-groups study was conducted following the guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki. The trial procedure was approved by the ethics committee of SMAS (Sport Medicine Association of Serbia). Written consent from the participants was obtained before initiating the study.
Athletes were randomly allocated to one of the two groups. The experimental group received daily L. helveticus Lafti® L10 (2 x 10 10 CFU) capsules for 14 weeks, while the control group received placebo capsules. Placebo
Zoltán-István Szabó, Blanka Székely-Szentmiklósi, Boglárka Deák, István Székely-Szentmiklósi, Béla Kovács, Katalin Zöldi and Emese Sipos
To evaluate the influence of different variables on tablet formulations containing enalapril maleate and indapamide as active substances, two separate experimental designs were employed: one for evaluating powder properties and the other for tablet characteristics. Because of the low active pharmaceutical ingredient content, it was hypothesized that both powder and tablet properties could be determined only by the characteristics of excipients. In order to test this assumption, both experimental designs were done with placebo mixtures. The optimized formulation was then evaluated both with and without APIs. Results indicated that filler and lubricant percentage, along with compression force, were the most important variables during the formulation study. The optimized formulation showed similar characteristics in both cases for all responses, except for angle of repose and friability where only minor differences were observed. The combination of the applied approaches (using placebo composition and fractional experimental design) proved to be efficient, cost effective and time saving.
Rattanaporn Burimsittichai, Phoonsak Limraksasin, Cameron Paul Hurst and Somrat Charuluxananan
a computer-generated random number table and each patient’s group allocation was kept in a sealed envelope. Group T received intravenous tramadol 1.5 mg/kg (Tramal 50; Grünenthal, Aachen, Germany), Group K received i.v. ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (Calypsol; Gedeon Richter, Budapest, Hungary), and Group P received i.v. 0.9% saline solution as a placebo control. An independent attending anesthesiologist who was not involved in the study administered the study drugs before urinary catheterization.
None of the patients were given premedication. Standard monitoring was
Introduction: The antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Satureja khuzestanica (Lamiaceae) have been investigated in numerous studies.
Objective: The antifungal effects of S. khuzestanica essential oil (SKJO) in immunosuppressed rats suffering from oral candidiasis were investigated.
Methods: A fungal suspension with a density of 3×108 CFU/ml was taken from the isolate of a case with acute vaginitis. In order to achieve a medicinal formulation, accurate twice the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of SKJO and 10 times MIC of nystatin was used with 0.8% agar as a base material. In this study, 35 rats divided into 5 groups each of 7 were used. The assessment of level of infection and specification of the effects of treatment were performed using microbiological and histopathological methods as well as clinical examinations.
Results: Our results show that carvacrol is the main compound of SKJ essential oil. Lesions completely disappeared in both treatment groups (SKJO and nystatin) after 8 days of treatment. Furthermore, in groups treated with SKJO and nystatin, the quantities of mean logarithm of colony forming unit (CFU) were 85.62% and 90.62%, respectively, in comparison with placebo group. Also, histopathological properties suggested no infection in groups who had clean and normal dorsal tongue mucosa.
Conclusions: Using SKJO with twice accuracy it was concluded that MIC in immunosuppressed rats was quite successful in a time of a week and equal with that of a nystatin treatment with an accuracy of 10 times the MIC.
A Randomized Double Blind Clinical Study on the Efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy in Reducing Pain After Simple Third Molar Extraction
Aim. The aim of this clinical study was to test the efficacy of Low level laser therapy (LLLT) in controlling post-operative pain after simple third molar extraction in a double blind, randomized placebo control study.
Material and Methods. Sixty healthy adults undergoing simple third molar extraction under local anesthesia (2% lidocaine with epinephrine 1:80.000) were selected in the study. 30 patients received a soft laser with an 870 nm wave length applied intra-orally from a distance of 1 cm for 10 minutes after extraction procedure. The energy output was 4 J/cm2, with constant power density of 50 mW. Laser treatment was simulated in the other 30 patients. Patients were instructed to evaluate their postoperative pain through out 7 days after extraction using a visual analogue scale (VAS).
Results. Results showed that the pain level in the laser group was lower than in the placebo group throughout the 7 day follow up period. The differences were significant starting from second postoperative day and continue all through the 7 day follow up period (Mann-Whitney U — test, p<0.05).
Conclusion. We suggest that the use of low power laser irradiation is a promising therapy in reducing the post-operative pain after third molars extraction.
Lyudmila G. Vladimirova-Kitova, Tania I. Deneva and Fedya P. Nikolov
Introduction: The effect of statins on the levels of cell adhesion molecules (CAM) is discussed in the literature as one of the pleiotropic effects of the drugs. This effect is one of the ways that could be used to control the initial stage of atherogenesis. The research in this field is inadequate and controversial. Prevention guidelines recommend that target levels of LDL cholesterol in high-risk patients should be less than 2.6 mmol/l. If the primary target is LDL -cholesterol, it is doubtful if patients can have any significant changes in the levels of the cell adhesion molecules (CAM).
Aim: Study the effect of simvastatin administered in a moderate dose of 40 mg and in a high dose of 80 mg on endothelium activation in the context of the plasma levels of soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin) in recently diagnosed untreated severe hypercholesterolemia after reaching target levels for the LDL-cholesterol below 2.6 mmol/l.
Patients and methods: One hundred patients (aged > 16 years) were included in the study. Hypercholesterolemia was defined as fasting total serum cholesterol level greater than 7.5 mmol/l and LDL -cholesterol > 4.9 mmol/l. The study was carried out in three phases, the main goal being titration of simvastatin dose from 40 to 80 mg with the purpose of achieving the target LDL level of < 2.6 mmol/l in a randomised placebo-controlled study.
Results: There was a statistically significant reduction of sVCAM-1 following the 80-mg simvastatin therapy for one month after reaching target levels of LDL-cholesterol < 2.6 mmol/l in hypercholesterolemic patients in comparison with the moderate dose (40 mg) of simvastatin for one month (p < 0.001). The results of the study demonstrated that simvastatin in a dose of 80 mg exerted an effect on the levels of some CAM, and particularly on VCA M-1 in contrast to the same drug used in a dose of 40 mg .
Conclusion: As different statins most likely have a distinctly specific effect on different adhesion molecules, this study seeks to establish a suitable panel of such adhesion molecules that may be used in monitoring statin therapy.
Andrzej Pokrywka, Zbigniew Obmiński, Jadwiga Malczewska-Lenczowska, Zbigniew Fijatek, Ewa Turek-Lepa and Ryszard Grucza
Herbal and nutritional supplements are more and more popular in the western population. One of them is an extract of an exotic plant, named Tribulus terrestris (TT). TT is a component of several supplements that are available over-the-counter and widely recommended, generally as enhancers of human vitality. TT is touted as a testosterone booster and remedy for impaired erectile function; therefore, it is targeted at physically active men, including male athletes. Based on the scientific literature describing the results of clinical trials, this review attempted to verify information on marketing TT with particular reference to the needs of athletes. It was found that there are few reliable data on the usefulness of TT in competitive sport. In humans, a TT extract used alone without additional components does not improve androgenic status or physical performance among athletes. The results of a few studies have showed that the combination of TT with other pharmacological components increases testosterone levels, but it was not discovered which components of the mixture contributed to that effect. TT contains several organic compounds including alkaloids and steroidal glycosides, of which pharmacological action in humans is not completely explained. One anti-doping study reported an incident with a TT supplement contaminated by a banned steroid. Toxicological studies regarding TT have been carried out on animals only, however, one accidental poisoning of a man was described. The Australian Institute of Sport does not recommend athletes’ usage of TT. So far, the published data concerning TT do not provide strong evidence for either usefulness or safe usage in sport.