During long-term research (almost forty years) of tailings containment in Chvaletice (Eastern Bohemia) were also carried out studies on the role of each plant dominants in succession. This review presents the most interesting results of these studies.
Veiko Uri, Jürgen Aosaar, Mats Varik and Merit Kund
stands. - Academic dissertation, University of Joensuu, Finland.
Telenius, B. F. 1999. Stand growth of deciduous pioneertreespecies on fertile agricultural land in southern Sweden. - Biomass and Bioenergy, 16, 13-23.
Tullus, H. 1998. Eesti halli lepa puistud energiaressursina. - ETF grandiprojekti nr.1603 lõpparuanne. (Estonian grey alder stands as energy resources - ESF grant no. 1603 final report). Tartu. 61 pp. (In Estonian).
Uri, V. 2000. Halli ja hübriidlepa kultuurid endisel põllumaal
Vladimír Šebeň, Bohdan Konôpka, Michal Bošeľa and Jozef Pajtík
The decline of spruce stands caused by bark beetle outbreaks is a serious economic and ecological problem of forestry in Slovakia. In the preceding period, the decline affected mainly secondary spruce forests. Over the last decade, due to large bark-beetle outbreaks this problem has been observed also in natural spruce forests, even at high elevations. We dealt with this issue in a case study of short-term development of larch-spruce stands in the High Tatras (at a site called Štart). We compared the situation in the stand infested by bark beetles several years after the wind-throw in 2004 with the stand unaffected by bark beetles. We separately analysed the development of the mature (parent) stands and the regeneration. The results indicated that forest decline caused by bark beetles significantly depended on the stand structure (mainly tree species composition), which affected the period of stand disintegration. Mortality of spruce trees slowed down biomass accumulation (and thus carbon sequestration) in the forest ecosystem. In the new stand, pioneer tree species dominated (in the conditions of the High Tatras it is primarily rowan), although their share in the parent stand was negligible. The results showed different trends in the accumulation of below-ground and above-ground biomass in the declined and living stands. In the first years after the stand decline, rowan accumulated significantly more biomass than the main tree species, i.e. spruce. The reverse situation was under the surviving stand, where spruce trees accumulated more biomass than rowan. The different share of spruce and pioneer tree species, mainly rowan, affected the ratio between fixed (in woody parts of trees) and rotating (in foliage) carbon in the undergrowth. Forest die-back is a big source of carbon emissions from dead individuals, and the compensation of these losses in the form of carbon sequestration by future stands is a matter of several decades.
Betula maximowicziana is a long-lived pioneer tree species in cool temperate forests that plays an important role in the forest ecosystem and has high economic value. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate the genetic variation of four natural populations of B. maximowicziana (three in central Honshu and the other in Hokkaido) to obtain fundamental information on this natural resource. Sixty-one reproductive amplified bands were obtained with 23 primers. Of these 61 bands, 22 were monomorphic and 39 were polymorphic. The level of genetic variation within each population may be very similar, because the population rankings according to number of polymorphic loci, Shannon’s indices and intra-population genetic variance revealed no definite patterns. Global analysis of AMOVA (analysis of molecular variance) showed that genetic variation among populations accounted for 15.6% of the total variation, with the remainder (84.4%) occurring within population. These results demonstrate that genetic differentiation among the four populations is moderate. Hierarchical AMOVA analysis showed that variation among regions (Hokkaido and central Honshu) accounted for 10.4% of the total genetic variation, suggesting that regional genetic differentiation is relatively high. Significant correlations between pairwise ΦPT values and geographic distance were detected, and results of both a neighbor-joining dendrogram based on pairwise ΦPT values, and principal coordinate analysis (PCO) based on a Euclidean metric revealed that the Furano population in Hokkaido was genetically different from the three populations in central Honshu. The data obtained in this study should have important implications for the conservation and management of regional genetic variation of B. maximowicziana.
Jaroslav Červený, Miloš Ježek, Michaela Holá, Miloslav Zikmund, Tomáš Kušta, Vladimír Hanzal and Rudolf Kropil
The European bison (Bison bonasus) became extinct in the wild in the 20th century. Due to successful reintroductions of captive individuals, the free-ranging bison population has been steadily increasing. However, the population consists of small and isolated herds whose survival depends on creating larger and connected populations. Detailed knowledge of movement and habitat use in human-dominated landscape is essential for further successful reintroductions of the European bison. Therefore, we studied daily activity and habitat use of the semi-free European bison herd in the hunting enclosure of Židlov from April to September 2014. The lead cow of the herd was fitted with a GPS collar equipped with GSM module. The average home range size of the herd was 29.5 km2 and the average daily utilisation area was 0.5 km2. Forested habitats were preferred during the day (Rayleigh test: Z = 107.31; p < 0. 0001) whereas idle lands (i.e. former shooting ranges now dominated by a mixture of pioneer tree species, hawthorn and grasslands) during the night (Rayleigh test: Z = 214.451; p < 0. 0001). The bison herd did not show any clear preference for a particular forest type (i.e. coniferous, deciduous, different age classes). Additional knowledge on year-long patterns of movement and habitat use is needed to ensure the success of reintroduction programmes
Y. H. Peng, Z. X. Lu, K. Chen, O. Luukkanen, H. Korpelainen and Chun Yang Li
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CASTIGLIONE, S., G. WANG, G. DAMIANI, C
. Uppsala, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 89-94.
Telenius, B.F. 1999. Stand growth of deciduous pioneertreespecies on fertile agricultural land in southern Sweden. - Biomass and Bioenergy, 16, 13-23.
Tullus, A., Tullus, H., Soo, T., Pärn, L. 2009. Aboveground biomass characteristics of young hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx.) plantations on former agricultural land in Estonia. - Biomass and Bioenergy, 33, 1617-1625.
Tullus, H., Uri, V., Lõhmus, K., Mander, Ü., Keedus, K. 1998. Halli
availabilities. Tree Physiology 30(5): 618-627.
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SILVESTRINI, M., C. A. PINTO-MAGLIO, M. I. ZUCCHI and F. A. DOS SANTOS (2013): Cytogenetics and characterization of microsatellite loci for a South American pioneertreespecies, Croton
Dijana Čortan, Hilke Schroeder, Mirjana Šijačić-Nikolić, Christian Wehenkel and Matthias Fladung
Lefèvre F, Légionnet A, De Vries S, Turok J (1998) Strategies for the conservation of a pioneertreespecies, Populus nigra L., in Europe. Genet Select Evol 30:181-196 http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/gse:19980711
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Leroy SAG, Arpe K (2007) Glacial refugia for summer-green trees in Europe and