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Introduction. Phytotherapy is a part of the science of medicinal plants – it includes the prevention and treatment of various disorders with the help of plants and their parts (including seeds, leaves, roots, flowers and fruits), active substances extracted from them and plant preparations’ the formula of herbal medicines goes back to ancient times. Herbal medicine should complement or strengthen synthetic therapy, not being its alternative. Phytotherapy in obstetrics and gynecology is a far-reaching procedure. The beneficial effects of plant preparations are used, inter alia, in cases of inflammation of the urinary tract, vaginitis and vulva, premenstrual syndrome, menstrual disorders, climacteric syndrome and in the postpartum period (e.g. in the healing of crotch injuries and problems with lactation).

Aim. Presentation the action of selected natural products in the treatment of urinary tract infections, bacterial vaginosis, vaginal and vulva candidiasis and human papillomavirus infection (HPV).

activity of A. brevifolia , A. sativum , Chenopodium album and Caesalpinia crista , or A. absintium in sheep, respectively. To conclude, the phytotherapeutic potential and pattern of anthelmintic effectiveness of plant extracts vary widely from study to study. Consequently, though phytotherapy has become more and more popular with both donkey breeders and veterinarians, phytotherapic compounds marketed as herbal anthelmintics need evidence-based validation. For this reason, our trial tested the effectiveness of an herbal dewormer against intestinal strongyles in


Introduction: The high concentration of some trace elements in medicinal plants may lowering the value of herbal material, and may cause poisoning effects.

Objective: The aim of this research was to evaluate the content of trace elements in the organs of: sandy everlasting, yarrow and stinging nettle.

Methods: In the soil samples, the grain size composition, pH, the content of carbon and nitrogen were determined. In the plant material and for the soil samples, the total contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb were assayed. The values of the bioconcentration factor and translocation factor were also calculated.

Results: The concentration of metals in plant tissues followed in order: Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Hg. The studied species of medicinal plants accumulated mainly Zn, Pb and Hg. It was also shown a high Hg mobility and a low Pb mobility which mainly accumulated in the roots.

Conclusions: As our research shows the plants used in phytotherapy, should come from plantations monitored for toxic heavy metals in soil.


Due to increasing demand of medicinal plants (MPs), quality and safety more attention to the plant health should be paid. Among herb pathogens, especially fungi cause serious diseases in these plants decreasing yield and quality of herbal raw material. Some species, i.e. Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp. are known as mycotoxin producers. Paradoxically, self-treatment with herbal raw material can expose the patient to mycotoxin activity. In tissues of some MPs species, asymptomatically endophytic fungi residue. It is known that they are able to influence a biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in their host plant or produce biologically active compounds. Until recently these microorganisms have been neglected as a component of MPs, the reason why there have unexplored bioactivity and biodiversity. The paper presents an overview of herbal plants that are used in the treatment of nervous system diseases. Pathogenic fungi that infect these plants are described. It focused mainly on species producing harmful mycotoxins. The publication presents a list of these mycotoxins and a brief description of their effects on human health. The second part of this article provides information on the occurrence of endophytic fungi in herbal plants and their effects on human health. Coexistence of fungi and medicinal plants is not fully understood but can be crucial to ensure health and safety of patients with neurological diseases and mental disorders.

References 1. Aguilar-Støen M, Moe SR (2007) Medicinal plant conservation and management: distribution of wild and cultivated species in eight countries. Biodivers Conserv 16:1973-1981. 2. Ciulei I, Grigorescu E, Stănescu U (1993) Medicinal herbs, Phytochemistry and phytotherapy, vol. 2. Medical Publishing House, București 3. Coldea Gh (red). (2012) Les associations végétales de Roumanie, tom 2. Les associations herbacées anthropogène. Cluj University Press, Cluj-Napoca 4. Cristea V, Gafta D, Pedrotti F (2004) Phytosociology. Cluj University Press, Cluj-Napoca 5


Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is a shrub of the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean region. The material used for herbal purposes includes lavender flowers (Lavandula flores) containing essential oil (3%), anthocyanins, phytosterols, sugars, minerals, and tannins. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oil of lavender is variable and depends on genotype, growing location, climatic conditions, propagation, and morphological features. The essential oil contains over 300 chemical compounds. The dominant components are linalool, linalyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol, acetate lavandulol, oci-mene, and cineole. Lavender essential oil has good antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and a significant positive effect on the digestive and nervous systems. Lavender extract prevents dementia and may inhibit the growth of cancer cells, while lavender hydrolate is recommended for the treatment of skin problems and burns.


Clinical entities of food allergy in allergic rhinitis patients due to IgE-sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are well described, but less data are available regarding allergic reactions to foods containing aeroallergens, either due to food contamination, such as oral mite anaphylaxis, or due to their natural presence in the edible products, such as pollen grains in honey and bee products. There are some potential risks for allergic rhinitis subjects due to ingestion of food products containing domestic mite, insect, fungal and pollen allergens. The knowledge of these risks is useful for the allergists and ENT specialists, especially in the context of climate changes with warmer periods facilitating mite growth in flours, and of increase use of phytotherapy and apitherapy products containing pollen grains.

A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity

Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.


Preparations from rhizomes of Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. (common butterbur) have a long history of use in folk medicine in treatment of several diseases as anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic drugs. Extracts from this species are of interest to researchers in the field of phytopharmacology due to their biologically active compounds, particularly two eremophilane sesquiterpenes (petasin and isopetasin), which are contained not only in rhizomes and roots, but also in leaves. Moreover, P. hybridusa contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids, which showed hepatotoxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Hence, special extracts devoid of alkaloids obtained by sub- and super-critic carbon dioxide extraction were used in the preclinical, clinical studies and phytotherapy. Our review aims to provide a literature survey of pharmacological as well as clinical trials of P. hybridus, carried out in 2000-2013. Also several studies of other species used in non-European countries have been included. Besides, the botanical description of Petasites genus and phytochemical characteristic of P. hybridus and toxicological studies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids as well as chemical profile of patented commercial extracts from rhizomes, roots and leaves of this species used in European phytotherapy have been performed. In this review, attention has also been paid to the promising and potential application of special extracts of P. hybridus not only in the prevention of migraine, treatment of allergic rhinitis symptoms, asthma and hypertension, but also in prevention and slowing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases developing with the inflammatory process in the CNS as a new therapeutic strategy. In fact, there is already an evidence of promising properties of P. hybridus extracts and sesquiterpens - decrease in the prostaglandins and leukotrienes release, inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity, as well as antagonism of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. In order to explain the new mechanisms of action of P. hybridus extracts in the CNS and their future application in phytotherapy of diseases with neuroinflammatory process, further studies should be performed.


Recently, several studies have been undertaken so as to develop more effective therapeutic approaches towards eradicating Helicobacter pylori. Among these is phytotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity in vitro of the plant extracts obtained from common herbs cultivated in the Lubelszczyzna region against the reference strain H. pylori ATCC 43504. Among these are thyme herbs, chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves and coneflower herbs. Herein, it was found that the MIC values of the assayed extracts were as follows: the extracts from coneflower herbs showed anti-H. pylori activity with MIC = 31.3-125 μg/ml; the extracts from chamomile flowers demonstrated MIC = 31.3-62.5 μg/ ml; the extracts from peppermint leaves had MIC = 15.6-250 μg/ml; and the extracts from thyme herbs revealed MIC = 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, depending on the solvent used. The most active were the extracts obtained with ethyl acetate or ethanol alcohol absolute 99.8%. These showing MIC within the range of 15.6-62.5 μg/ml, while the lowest activity was observed in case of the extract obtained with 70% aqueous ethanol. This last showing MIC within the range of 62.5-250 μg/ml. The MIC values of essential oil components were 15.6 μg/ml for bisabolol and menthol or 31.3 μg/ml for thymol. The obtained data indicate that the assayed herbs possessed promising anti-H. pylori bioactivity.