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responses and time-motion characteristics with regard to SSGs ( Koklu et al., 2015a ; McLean et al., 2016 ). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different resting regimes (passive and active) on physiological responses and timemotion characteristics in different SSG formats (2- a-side, 3-a-side, and 4-a-side) in youth soccer players. Methods Subjects Sixteen soccer players participated in this study voluntarily (age 16.87 ± 0.34 years; body height 176.69 ± 3.21 cm; body mass 62.40 ± 2.59 kg; training experience 3.75 ± 0.44 years). All

Abstract

The paper presents relationship between the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and physiological responses of individual trees in a beech stand using an example of an experimental plot in Bienska valley (Zvolen, Slovakia). SPI is a widely used tool for monitoring both short-term and long-term droughts, and for the assessments of drought impacts on agriculture. Due to the complex ecosystem bonds, monitoring of drought in forests often requires a sophisticated technological approach. The aim of the paper was to correlate the SPI on the physiological responses of trees that were recorded during the performed physiological research (sap flow, and stem circumference increment) at the site in the growing seasons (May to September) of the years 2012-2014. The results revealed a relationship between the index and the physiological responses, although the problem with the impact of other environmental factors has also come up. The secondary correlation, in which soil water potential that significantly affects physiological responses of forest tree species was used as a dependent variable, showed a tighter relationship with the SPI. We found the highest correlation between the soil water potential and the values of SPI aggregated for five weeks. This indicates that the beech forest has a five week resistance to drought stress. The results also enable simple monitoring of the initiation of the drought stress by applying SPI for five weeks.

performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001; 33(11): 1925-1931 Hill-Haas S, Coutts A, Dawson B, Rowsell G. Time-motion characteristics and physiological responses of small-sided games in elite youth players: the influence of player number and rule changes. J Strength Con Res, 2010; 24(8): 2149-2156 Hill-Haas S, Coutts A, Rowsell G, Dawson B. Generic versus small-sided game training in soccer. Int J Sports Med, 2009a; 30(3): 636-642 Hill-Haas S, Dawson B, Coutts A, Rowsell G. Physiological responses and time-motion characteristics of various small-sided soccer games in youth

of 5 hours ( Kovacs, 2007 ). Consequently, tennis players need to possess tennis-specific physiological characteristics, such as aerobic fitness, muscle strength and power to reach the optimum match performance level ( Kovacs, 2006 ). Thus, it is important to assess the relevant physical characteristics and measure physiological responses to simulated tournament match-play to enable the design of effective tennis on-court practice programs for professional tennis players. A number of studies have focused on physiological demands of tennis, investigating factors

GJ. Time-motion characteristics and physiological responses of small-sided games in elite youth players: The influence of player number and rule changes. J Strength Cond Res 2010:24(8): 2149-2156. Hill-Haas SV, Coutts AJ, Rowsell GJ, Dawson BT. Generic versus small-sided game training in soccer. Int J Sports Med 2009a; 30: 636-642. Hill-Haas SV, Dawson BT, Coutts AJ, Rowsell GJ. Physiological responses and time-motion characteristics of various small-sided soccer games in youth players, J Sports Sci 2009b; 27(1):1-8. Hill-Haas SV, Dawson BT, Impellizzeri FM

. (eds.), Broadening the Cattle Frontier, Technical Note No. 1, INTA Cordoba, Argentina (In Spanish). De-Pereira-Netto, A. B., De-Maganhaes, C. A. N., Pinto, H. S., 1999: Effect of soil water depletion on the water relation in tropical Kudzu. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira 7, 1151-1157. El Hafid, R., Smith, D., Karrou, M., Samir, K., 1998: Physiological responses of spring durum wheat cultivars to early seasons drought in a Mediterranean environment. Annals of Botany 81:363-370. Geber, M. A., Dawson, T. E., 1997: Genetic variation in stomatal and biochemical

measurement inversely correlates with VO 2 (r = −0.7) during trail running on hilly terrain ( Born et al., 2016 ). To our knowledge, no direct measurement of SmO2 in exercises of highly trained basketball players has been taken. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in physical and physiological responses to different modes of RSE by measuring speed, total time (TT) (sum of sprints), fatigue index (FI), HR, SmO2, total haemoglobin content (THb), and BLa. Methods Participants Twelve highly trained male basketball players (age 21 ± 1.9 y, body mass 86.2 ± 5.8 kg

–1221. Maxwell, K., Johnson, G. N., 2000: Chlorophyll fluorescence – a practical guide. Journal of Experimental Botany 51, 659–668. Mishra, A., Salokhe, V. M., 2011: Rice growth and physiological responses to SRI water management and implications for crop productivity. Paddy and Water Environment 9, 41–52. Monnet, F., Nathalie, V., Adnane, H., Alain, C., Huguette, S., 2001: Endophytic Neotyphodium lolii induced tolerance to Zn stress in Lolium perenne . Physiologia Plantarum 113, 557–563. Moud, A. M., Maghsoudi, K., 2008: Salt stress effects on respiration and growth of

stroke swimming with CSR control would influence physiological responses and stroke variables. Methods Participants Seven well-trained, national-level, male middle- and long-distance swimmers (mean ± SD; age: 19.9 ± 1.4 years, body height: 1.69 ± 0.06 m, and body mass: 65.2 ± 4.7 kg) participated in this study. Their best performance over 400 m was 89.7 ± 2.2% of the mean speed of the world record and 729.3 ± 63.0 points on the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) scale for a 50 m pool. All swimmers trained 10 times per week for approximately two hours per

from the PV reached in the Carminatti’s Test (PVT-CAR) using set duration (4 x 4 min) according to the traditional model ( Helgerud et al., 2001 ), without the sets being individualized by the athlete’s Tlim. Considering that precision in training prescription is one of the main aspects that can modify metabolic responses of trained athletes ( Buchheit and Laursen, 2013 ), it is fundamental to identify physiological responses in the Tlim to individualize aerobic power training of futsal players. In addition, VO2 kinetics can also provide important information related