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data analysis. Genetics and Biometry Laboratory, University of Geneva, Switzerland. SETOGUCHI, H., T. A. OSAWA, J.-C. PINTAUD, T. JAFFRÉ and J.-M. VEILLON (1998): Phylogenetic relationships within Araucariaceae based on rbcL gene sequences. American Journal of Botany 85: 1507-1516. SWOFFORD, D. L. (1998): PAUP*: Phylogenetic analysis using parsimony and other methods. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaing, IL. STEFENON, V. M. and R. O. NODARI (2003): Marcadores moleculares no melhoramento genético de araucária. Biotecnologia Ciência e Desenvolvimento 31: 95

the Zoological Institute AS USSR. - 1974. - 53. - P. 230-281. - Russian : Рубцов И. А. Об эволю­ции, филогении и классификации мошек (Diptera, Simuliidae). Sukhomlin E. B, Zinchenko A. P. Phylogenetic relationships of the tribe of blackflies the Palaearctics Simuliini // Proceedings of the international scientific conference “Synthetic Theory of Evolution: status, problems and prospects”, dedicated to the 200th anniversary of the birth of Charles Darwin and the 150th anniver­sary of the publication of the book “The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection

morphological variability in North China zokor Myospalax psilurus (Rodentia, Spalacidae, Myospalacinae). Russ. J. Theriol ., 13 (1), 27-46. Saitou, N.,Nei,M. (1987). The Neighbor-Joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol., 5 (4), 406-25. Smith, A. T., Xie, Y. (2008). A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton and Princeton University Press, Oxford. 544 pp. Su, J., Ji, W., Wang J., Gleeson, D., Zhou, J., Hua, L., Wei, Y. (2014). Phylogenetic relationships of extant zokors (Myospalacinae) (Rodentia, Spalacidae) inferred from

.-Q. & WANG X.-Z H . 2006: Phylogenetic relationships of the Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) inferred from nuclear 18S rDNA sequences. Zoological Research 27 : 307–316. LI M., TIAN Y., ZHAO Y. & BU W.-J. 2012: Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes. PLoS ONE 7(2)(e32152) : 1–18. LI M., WANG Y.-H., XIE Q., TIAN X.-X., LI T., ZHANG H.-F. & BU W.-J. 2016a: Reanalysis of the phylogenetic relationships of the Pentatomomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) based on ribosomal, Hox and

Abstract

Apis cerana Fabricius, 1793 is the eastern honeybee species distributed throughout Asia from the tropical climate in the southern part to the temperate climate in the northern part. We sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of A. cerana from Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai of the Russian Far East and uploaded it to the database GenBank (AP018450). MtDNA sequence has 15,919 bp length, AT-content 84% and GC-content 16% and contains 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, one AT-rich region and four non-coding intergenic regions (NC1-4). All proteincoding genes start with ATT and ATG codons, except for ATC, the start codon of the ATP8 gene, which and stop with the common stop codons TAA and TAG. A comparative analysis of complete mtDNA of A. cerana from China, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Russia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, and Japan found that the Russian Far East Apis cerana differed from others on the subspecies level. Based on the comparative analysis of complete mtDNA (~16,000 bp), nuclear DNA (nDNA) gene Vitellogenin (VG) (~4,100 bp) and morphological measurements (six parameters), we assumed that the Russian Far-East A. cerana can be a distinct northern Asia population and can be described as a separate unique subspecies of A. c. ussuriensis subsp. nov. A. c. koreana subsp. nov. is also validated and described as a new subspecies.

Abstract

Cow mastitis caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) exhibits various local and systemic clinical signs at varying degrees of severity. The aim this study was to elucidate the virulence properties, antibiotic resistance and phylogenetics of 56 E. coli strains. Of all the studied strains, 12 were positive for hemolytic properties and 38 were positive for biofilm production. Additionally, 55 of the strains were positive for multiple resistances in bacteriological tests. PCR analysis revealed that 42 strains carried the traT gene, 20 strains had the shiga toxin gene (stx1-stx2), and 8 strains carried the intimin gene (eae), but all strains were negative for aerobactin gene (aer). All strains encoding shiga toxin genes were also positive for stx1, but only 4 strains were positive for stx2. There were no significant differences in virulence genes between antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible strains. The random amplifi ed polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction patterns revealed the existence of 13 main groups with 4 subgroups of E. coli. In this study, E. coli strains causing intramammary infections and originating from various sources might show resistance against common antibiotics. Pathogenity of E. coli that cause clinical mastitis, and prognosis of the infection might be predicted by obtaining the traT gene. Additionally, antibiotic resistance should be investigated at the genomic level to detect the relationship between virulence factors and antibiotic resistance. In field conditions, development of antibiotic resistance is the main cause of mastitis treatment failure. Thus, antibiotic resistance profiles in herds should be monitored and effective antibiotics should be administered

WURFF, A., VAN DEN ELSEN, S., VAN MEGEN, H., BONGERS, T., HOLOVACHOV, O., BAKKER, J., HELDER, J. (2006): Phylum-wide analysis of SSU rDNA reveals deep phylogenetic relationships among nematodes and accelerated evolution towards crown clades. Mol. Biol. Evol., 23: 1792 - 1800. DOI: 10.1093/ molbev/msl044 KOEHLER A.V.A., HOBERG, E.P., DOKUCHAEV, N.E., TRANBENKOVA, N.A., WHITMAN, J.S., NAGORSEN, D.W., COOK, J.A. (2009): Phylogeography of a Holarctic nematode, Soboliphyme baturini, among mustelids: climate change, episodic colonization, and diversifi cation in a complex

. (2000). Phylogenetic Relationship among Bumble Bees ( Bombus, Latreille) Inferred from Mitochondrial Cytochrome b and Cytochrome Oxidase I Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetic and Evolution, 14 (3), 335-341. http://doi.org/10.1006/mpev.1999.0621 Larkin, M.A., Blackshields, G., Brown, N.P., Chenna, R., McGettigan, P.A., McWilliam, H., … Higgins, D.G. (2007). Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics , 23, 2947-2948. Michener, C.D. (2007). The Bees of the World 2nd Edition. Baltimore : John Hopkins University Press. Ming, Q., Shen, J., Cheng, C., & Feng

( Bae et al., 2008 ; van Megen etal .. 2009 ; Bhadury & Austen, 2010 ; Perera et al .. 2013) . However, less attention has been paid to the mitochon-drial DNA (mt DNA). Mitochondrial gene analysis has been used successfully in studies regarding identification and phylogenetic relationships in some nematode groups ( Blouin etal .. 1997 ; Ked-die etal .. 1998; Hoberg etal .. 1999 ; Denver etal .. 2000 ; Blouin, 2002 ; Lavrov & Brown, 2001 ; Liu et al., 2013) . The cytochrome c-oxidase subunit1 (Cox 1) gene has been successfully used to resolve the

., SHARMA, J. (2003): Redescription of some new Indian species of Thaparocleidus Jain, 1952 (Monogenea) with aspects of the developmental biology and mode of attachment of T. pussilus (Gussev, 1976). Syst. Parasitol., 54: 207-221 POSADA, D., CRANDALL, K.A. (1998): Modeltest: Testing the model of DNA substitution. Bioinformatics, 14: 817-818 SIMKOVA, A., PLAISANCE, L., MATEJUSOVA, I., MORAND, S., VERNEAU, O. (2003): Phylogenetic relationships of the Dactylogyridae Bychowsky, 1933 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridea): the need for the systematic revision of the Ancyrocephalinae