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. Wiernsperger NF, Bouskela E. Microcirculation in insulin resistance and diabetes: more than just a complication. In Diabetes Metab. 2003; 29: 6S77 - 6S87 15. Spigulis J, Kukulis I, Fridenberga E, Venckus G. Potential of advanced photoplethysmography sensing for noninvasive vascular diagnostics and early screening. Proc. SPIE 4625, Clinical Diagnostic Systems: Technologies and Instrumentation, 2012; 38 (June 7, 2002) 16. Menzlova M. Diagnosticke moznosti prstove pletyzmografie. In Dermatol.prax. 2008; 4:188-192 17. Jayasree VK, Sandhya TV, Radhakrishnan P. Non

HRV. Front Physiol 2017;8:360. 6. Lehrer PM, Vaschillo E, Vaschillo B, et al. Heart rate variability biofeedback increases baroreflex gain and peak expiratory flow. Psychosom Med 2003;65(5):796-805. 7. Allen J. Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement. Physiol Meas 2007;28:R1-39. 8. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. J Clin Epidemiol 2009;62(10):1006-12. 9. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting

1. A European strategy for Key Enabling Technologies - a bridge to growth and jobs: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/ict/key_technologies/index_en.htm. 2. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3278. 3. Ugnell, H., & Öberg, P.Å. (1995). Time variable photoplethysmography signal: its dependence on light wavelength and sample volume. Proc. SPIE , 2331, 89-97. 4. Allen, J. (2007). Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement. Physiol. Meas., 28 , R1-R39. 5. Boulnois, J. (1986). Photophysical processes in

variability analysis after GSM radiofrequency exposure. Journal of Biochemical and Biophysical Methods , 69 (1-2), 233-236. [14] Spierer, D.K., Rosen, Z., Litman, L.L., Fujii, K. (2015). Validation of photoplethysmography as a method to detect heart rate during rest and exercise. Journal of Medical Engineering and Technology , 39 (5), 264-271. [15] Vandenberk, T., Stans, J., Mortelmans, C., Van Haelst, R., Van Schelvergem, G., Pelckmans, C., Smeets, C.J., Lanssens, D., De Canniere, H., Storms, V., Thijs, I.M., Veas, B., Vandervoort, P.M. (2017). Clinical validation of

Abstract

Background: The aim was to assess endothelial function with photoplethysmography (PPG), by post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) combined with alprostadil challenge test in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Methods: Forty-nine PAD patients stage II-III Fontaine (39 male, 10 female, mean age 68.45±5.86 years) and a control group of 49 healthy individuals (24 male, 25 female; mean age 25.1±3.8 for a young subgroup; 71.0±0.16 years for an elderly subgroup) were included. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) was assessed at baseline, peripheral perfusion (PP) and PORH were assessed at baseline and after the 30 minutes administration of parenteral alprostadil.

Results: After 3 minutes of arterial occlusion, peripheral perfusion increased from 0.69±0.94 mV/V to 2.27±2.42 mV/V (p<0.0001). After alprostadil challenge, peripheral perfusion increased from 0.84±1.24 mV/V to 4.52±3.52 mV/V (p<0.0001). In controls PP was 2.4±1.7 mV/V versus 3.8±1.5 mV/V, p<0.0001.

Conclusion: In patients with PAD, an increase in PORH after alprostadil challenge due to the release of nitric oxide (NO), provides information on the endothelial function and could reflect the presence of collaterals. In the healthy control group, the increase in PORH could reflect the integrity of main arterial branch. In PAD patients with an increase in PORH, conservative therapy should be preferred over surgical revascularisation.

Abstract

Nordic walking and water aerobics are very popular forms of physical activity in the elderly population. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of regular health training on the venous blood flow in lower extremities and body composition in women over 50 years old. Twenty-four women of mean age 57.9 (± 3.43) years, randomly divided into three groups (Nordic walking, water aerobics, and non-training), participated in the study. The training lasted 8 weeks, with one-hour sessions twice a week. Dietary habits were not changed. Before and after training vein refilling time and the function of the venous pump of the lower extremities were measured by photoplethysmography. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance. Eight weeks of Nordic walking training improved the venous blood flow in lower extremities and normalized body composition in the direction of reducing chronic venous disorder risk factors. The average values of the refilling time variable (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively) decreased in both the right and the left leg. After training a statistically significant increase in the venous pump function index was found only in the right leg (p = 0.04). A significant increase in fat-free mass, body cell mass and total body water was observed (p = 0.01), whereas body mass, the body mass index, and body fat decreased (p < 0.03). With regard to water aerobic training, no similar changes in the functions of the venous system or body composition were observed.

-45. Brumfield, A. M., Andrews, M. E. (2005). Digital pulse contour analysis.investigating age-dependent indices of arterial compliance. Physiol. Meas. 26 , 599-608. Nitzan, M. Khanokh, B., Slovik, Y. (2002). The difference in pulse transit time to the toe and finger measured by photoplethysmography. Physiol. Meas. 23 , 85-93. Sherebrin, M. H, Sherebrin, R. Z. (1990). Frequency analysis of the peripheral pulse-wave detected in the finger with photoplethysmography. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 37 , 313-317. Oliva, I., Isper, J., Roztocil, K., Guttenbergerova, K. (1976). Fourier

agerelated increases in large artery stiffness by digital pulse contour analysis. Clinical Science , 103, 371-377. [16] Mohamed, S., Mahamod, I., Zainol, R. (2004). Artificial neural network (ANN) approach to PPG signal classification. International Journal of Computing & Information Sciences , 2 (1), 58-65. [17] Allen, J., Frame, R., Murray, A. (2002). Microvascular blood flow and skin temperature changes in the fingers following a deep inspiratory gasp. PhysiologicalMeasurement , 23 (2), 365-373. [18] Allen, J. (2007). Photoplethysmography and its application in

heart to the arterial tree on each heartbeat. The timing delay in the arrival of the pressure pulse between a proximal and a distal site, the so-called Pulse Transit Time (PTT), is generally accepted as the most simple, robust, and reproducible method to obtain the PWV [ 4 ], which can be calculated from the PTT according to PWV = D PTT , $$\text{PWV}=\frac{D}{\text{PTT}},$$ where D is the distance between the two recording sites measured on the body surface. Photoplethysmography (PPG) [ 5 ], impedance plethysmography (IPG) [ 6 ], mechanical transducers [ 7 ], and

). Inflammation and arterial stiffness in systemic vasculitis: A model of vascular inflammation. Arthritis Rheum., 50 (2), 581-588. Boutouyrie, P., Tropeano, A. I., Asmar, R., Gautier, I., Benetos, A., Lacolley, P., Laurent, S. (2002). Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of primary coronary events in hypertensive patients: A longitudinal study. Hypertension, 39 (1), 10-15. Cohen, J. (2002). The immunopathogenesis of sepsis. Nature, 420 (6917), 885-891. Erts, R., Spigulis, J., Kukulis, I., Ozols, M. (2005). Bilateral photoplethysmography studies of the leg arterial