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References 1. Hirabayashi T, Murayama T, Shimizu T. Regulatory mechanism and physiological role of cytosolic phos-pholipase A 2 . Biol Pharm Bull 2004; 27: 1168–73. 2. Murakami M, Kudo I. Phospholipase A 2 . J Biochem 2002; 131: 285–92. 3. Miyaura C, Inada M, Matsumoto C, Ohshiba T, Uozumi N, Shimizu T, et al. An essential role of cytosolic phos-pholipase A2alpha in prostaglandin E2-mediated bone resorption associated with inflammation. J Exp Med 2003; 197: 1303–10. 4. Tjoelker LW, Wilder C, Eberhardt C, Stafforini DM, Dietsch G, Schimpf B, et al. Anti

References Aleksiev B, Shipolini R. (1973). On the isolation and the structure of the toxic proteins from the venom of Bulgarian viper ( Vipera ammodytes ammodytes ). Polimeri ’73 - International symposium on polymers - Varna (Bulgaria) 1: 417 (in Bulgarian). Aleksiev B, Tchorbanov B. (1976). Action on phosphatidylcholine of the toxic phospholipase A2 from the venom of Bulgarian viper ( Vipera ammodytes ammodytes ). Toxicon 14: 477-485. Atanasov V, Petrova S, Mitewa M. (2009). HPLC assay of phospholipase A2 activity using low temperature derivatization of

References 1. Benipal B., Feinstein S.I., Chatterjee S., Dodia C., Fisher A.B.: Inhibition of the phospholipase A2 activity of peroxiredoxin 6 prevents lung damage with exposure to hyperoxia. Redox Biol 2015, 4, 321–327. 2. Chatterjee S., Feinstein S.I., Dodia C., Sorokina E., Lien Y.C., Nguyen S., Debolt K., Speicher D., Fisher A.B.: Peroxiredoxin 6, phosphorylation, and subsequent phospholipase A 2 activity are required for agonist-mediated activation of NADPH oxidase in mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelium and alveolar macrophages. J Biol Chem 2011, 286

References Atanasov VN, Danchev D, Mitewa M and Petrova S. (2009a). Hemolytic and anticoagulant study of the neurotoxin vipoxin and its components - basic phospholipase A2 and an acidic inhibitor. Biochemistry (Moscow) 74 : 339-345. Atanasov V, Petrova S and Mitewa M. (2009b). HPLC assay of phospholipase A2 activity using low temperature derivatization of fatty acids. Anal Lett 42 : 1341-1351. Bernardi G. (2002). Biochemistry of lipids, lipoproteins and membranes. Elsevier, Edmonton. Born GVR and Cross MJ. (1963). The aggregation of blood platelets. J Physiol

, Kriz RW, Chang XJ, Knopf JL, Lin LL. A novel calcium-independent phospholipase A2, cPLA2-gamma, that is prenylated and contains homology to cPLA2. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:21926–32; DOI:10.1074/JBC.273.34.21926. 10. Chiba H, Michibata H, Wakimoto K, Seishima M, Kawasaki S, Okubo K, Mitsui H, Torii H, Imai Y. Cloning of a gene for a novel epithelium-specific cytosolic phospholipase A2, cPLA2delta, induced in psoriatic skin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12890–7; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M305801200. 11. Romero R, Emamian M, Wan M, Quintero R, Hobbins JC, Mitchell MD. Prostaglandin

REFERENCES 1. OBRISCA B., ISMAIL G., JURUBITA R., BASTON C., ANDRONESI A., MIRCESCU G. Antiphospholipase A2 Receptor Autoantibodies: A Step Forward in the Management of Primary Membranous Nephropathy. Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015 :249740. 2. BECK L.H. JR., BONEGIO R.G., LAMBEAU G., BECK D.M., POWELL D.W., CUMMINS T.D., et al . M-type phospholipase A2 receptor as target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361 (1):11–21. 3. SVOBODOVA B., HONSOVA E., RONCO P., TESAR V., DEBIEC H. Kidney biopsy is a sensitive tool for retrospective

Abstract

The present study was designed to investigate the chemoprotective effect of green tea extract (GTE), rosmarinic acid (RA) and rosemary extract (RE) against diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiated and ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) promoted nephrotoxicity in rats. Forty male rats were categorized into five: Group I included healthy rats, group II received DEN+Fe-NTA, group III received 200 mg/kg b.wt. of RE+DEN+Fe-NTA, group IV received 1 g/kg b.wt. of GTE+DEN+Fe-NTA and group V received 50 mg/kg b.wt. of RA+DEN+Fe-NTA. RE, GTE, RA were given orally for 14 days before single intraperitoneal administration of DEN (160 mg/kg) till the end of the experiment. Eighteen days after DEN, a single intraperitoneal dose of Fe-NTA (5 mg Fe/kg) was administrated to rats to promote nephrotoxicity. The biochemical parameters were analyzed in serum at time intervals while the malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were assessed in both serum and renal tissues. Kidney from each group was histopathologically examined at time intervals. The administration of Fe-NTA after DEN dose to albino rats resulted in acute nephrotoxicity which was characterized by a highly significant elevation of serum urea, creatinine, uric acid (p=0.000), serum and renal MDA and TNF-α (p=0.000) with vacuolation of epithelial lining renal tubules. The administration of RE, GTE and RA prior to DEN+Fe-NTA treatment significantly ameliorated the observed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters. GTE, RA & RE exerted a protective effect against renal toxicity with GTE showing a more pronounced effect on renal function parameters while RA showed the best antioxidant impact.

hepatic fibrosis. Gut 2005; 54: 142-51. 14. Melle C, Bogumil R, Ernst G, Schimmel B, et al. De tection and identification of heat shock protein 10 as a biomarker in colorectal cancer by protein profiling. Proteomics 2006; 6: 2600-8. 15. Kramer RM, Roberts EF, Manetta JV, Sportsman JR, Jakubowski JA. Ca(2+)-sensitive cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) in human platelets. J Lipid Mediat 1993; 6: 209-16. 16. Puri RN. Phospholipase A2: its role in ADP- and thrombin-induced platelet activation mechanisms. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 1998; 30: 1107-22. 17. Gluck N, Schwob O

-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), an enzyme whose increased level in the circulation is linked with a high risk of atherosclerotic-plaque destabilization, is being actively studied. Besides, this enzyme has been suggested to be a highly specific marker of intravascular inflammation ( 9 ). The present study was aimed at investigating the balance of FAs, the search for associations of FAs with oxidative-antioxidant parameters and oxidative-inflammatory biomarker LP-FLA2 in men with coronary atherosclerosis (CA) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Materials and Methods This study was

subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue depots of insulin-resistant and insulin-sensitive light breed horses. J Vet Intern Med 24, 932–939, 2010. Cacho J, Sevillano J, de Castro J, Herrera E, Ramos MP. Validation of simple indexes to assess insulin sensitivity during pregnancy in Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295, E1269–E1276, 2008. Carlquist JF, Muhlestein JB, Anderson JL. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 : a new biomarker for cardiovascular risk assessment and potential therapeutic target. Expert Mol Diagn 7, 511–517, 2007. Chait A