Nowadays, phasor measurement units have many applications in the power network. Fault location using the network’s impedance matrix and phasor measurement units (PMU) is a subject that has been recently brought to the location light. In this research, we review the effect of the increased number of PMUs on the precision of the fault location. The method presented in this study uses the impedance transferring between these units and the fault location based on the fault distance. In the suggested method, the uncertainty on the network’s parameters has been considered and using the least-squares of faults, we can obtain the most optimal response. The advantage of this method is that it is not affected by the fault type and resistance of the short connection. In the end, the suggested method is implemented on the 14 bus distribution network and its performance has been evaluated.
Vedran Kirincic, Srdjan Skok and Dubravko Frankovic
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 PHADKE, A.-THORP, J. : Synchronized Phasor Measure- ments and their Applications, Springer, 2008.
 Metrics for Determining the Impact of PhasorMeasurements on Power System State Estimation, KEMA, Arnhem, The Nether- lands, Mar 2006.
 BI, T. S.-QIN, X. H.-YANG, Q. X. : A Novel Hybrid State Etimator for Including Synchronized PhasorMeasurements, Electric Power Systems Research 78
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3. Phadke, A. G., & Thorp, J. S. (2018). Synchronized phasormeasurement and their applications. New York: Springer.
Ujjaval J. Patel, Nilesh G. Chothani and Praghnesh J. Bhatt
Impedance reach of numerical distance relay is severely affected by Fault Resistance (RF), Fault Inception Angle (FIA), Fault Type (FT), Fault Location (FL), Power Flow Angle (PFA) and series compensation in transmission line. This paper presents a novel standalone adaptive distance protection algorithm for detection, classification and location of fault in presence of variable fault resistance. It is based on adaptive slope tracking method to detect and classify the fault in combination with modified Fourier filter algorithm for locating the fault. To realize the effectiveness of the proposed technique, simulations are performed in PSCAD using multiple run facility & validation is carried out in MATLAB® considering wide variation in power system disturbances. Due to adaptive setting of quadrilateral characteristics in accordance with variation in fault impedance, the proposed technique is 100 % accurate for detection & classification of faults with error in fault location estimation to be within 1 %. Moreover, the proposed technique provides significant improvement in response time and estimation of fault location as compared to existing distance relaying algorithms, which are the key attributes of multi-functional numerical relay
Nikolai S. Kosarev, Konstantin M. Antonovich and Leonid A. Lipatnikov
Colombo O. L., Bhapkar U. V., Evans A. G., 1999: Inertial-aided cycle-slip detection/correction for precise, long-baseline kinematic GPS. In: Proceedings of the ION GPS, Nashville, TN, USA, September 14–17, 1999, 1915–1921.
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Du S., Gao Y., 2012: Inertial aided cycle slip detection and identification for integrated PPP GPS and
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MESEGUER, J.—PUIG, V.—ESCOBET, T.—SALUDES, J.: Observer Gain Effect in Linear Interval Observer-Based Fault Detection, Journal of Process Control 20 (2010), 944.
LEE, Y. K.: A Fault Diagnosis Technique for Complex Systems using Bayesian Data Analysis, PhD thesis of Georgia Institute of Technology, 2008.
WANG, Y.—LI, W. Y.—LU, J. P.: Reliability Analysis of PhasorMeasurement Unit using Hierarchical Markov
Ahmed A. Elashiry, Mohamed A. Youssef and Mohamed A. Abdel Hamid
for Navigation Algorithm Developments, Master’s Thesis, Space Science Department, Lulea University of Technology, 2005.
 Karaim M. et. al., GPS Cycle Slip Detection and Correction at Measurement Level, British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 2014, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 4239–4251.
 Kim D., Instantaneous Real-Time Cycle-Slip Correction For Quality Control of GPS Carrier-PhaseMeasurements, Proceedings of the Institute Of Navigation ION GNSS, 2002.
 Klobuchar J. A., Ionospheric Time-Delay Algorithm for Single-Frequency GPS Users
L’uboš Pavlov, L’uboš Skurčák, Juraj Chovanec and Juraj Altus
 F. Janíček, M. Jedinák and I. Šulc, “Awareness System Implemented in the European Network”, Journal of electrical engineering , vol. 65, no. 5, (2014), 320–324.
 Anguan) Wu, and Baoshan Ni, Line Loss Analysis and Calculation of Electric Power Systems , October 2015, ISBN: 9781118867 235.
 A. G. Phadke and J. S. Thorp, Synchronized PhasorMeasurements and Their Applications , Springer, USA.
 Di Shi Utilizing synchrophasor technology to determine transmission line impedance parameters , Arizona State University
Martina Sammer, Bob Laarhoven, Ernest Mejias, Doekle Yntema, Elmar C. Fuchs, Gert Holler, Georg Brasseur and Ernst Lankmayr
Impedance spectroscopy is a useful tool for non-invasive and real time measurements of cell suspensions and a variety of biological tissues. The objective of this study was the investigation of the dielectric properties of living aquatic worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) using impedance spectroscopy in a frequency range between 100 Hz and 10 MHz. We demonstrate a linear relation between the worm biomass and the phase response of the signal thereby providing a quick and precise method to determine the biomass of aquatic worms in situ. Possible applications for non-destructive online biomass monitoring of aquatic worms and other aqueous organisms are discussed. Furthermore, we show that groups of worms fed different diets can be distinguished by the method presented. These results reveal a close relationship between the nutritional composition of the worms and the measured phase response. We also demonstrate that the phase response at 90 kHz does not depend on the worm size. In contrast, the response function for the signal at 440 Hz reveals a linear correlation of average individual worm size and phase. Therefore, we conclude that the measured phase response at 90 kHz qualifies as a measure of the total amount of worm biomass present in the measuring cell, whereas the phase measurement at 440 Hz can be used to estimate the average individual worm size.
Panithan Srinuandee, Chalermchon Satirapod, Clement Ogaja and Hung-Kyu Lee
Optimization of Satellite Combination in Kinematic Positioning Mode with the Aid of Genetic Algorithm
The basis of high precision relative positioning is the use of carrier phase measurements. Data differencing techniques are one of the keys to achieving high precision positioning results as they can significantly reduce a variety of errors or biases in the observations and models. Since GPS observations are usually contaminated by many errors such as the atmospheric biases, the receiver clock bias, the satellite clock bias, and so on, it is impossible to model all systematic errors in the functional model. Although the data differencing techniques are widely used for constructing the functional model, some un-modeled systematic biases still remain in the GPS observations following such differencing. Another key to achieving high precision positioning results is to fix the initial carrier phase ambiguities to their theoretical integer values. To obtain a high percentage of successful ambiguity-fixed rates, noisy GPS satellites have to be identified and removed from the data processing step. This paper introduces a new method using genetic algorithm (GA) to optimize the best combination of GPS satellites which yields the highest number of successful ambiguity-fixed solutions in kinematic positioning mode. The results indicate that the use of GA can produce higher number of ambiguity-fixed solutions than the standard data processing technique.