al ., 2007 ). Macrophages are strategically located throughout the body and express a multitude of receptors on their surfaces that detect “non-self” signals which are later eliminated via phagocytosis. Phagocytosis is the process that cells have evolved to internalize large particles such as mineral debris, which they store, or apoptotic cells and pathogens, which they have the capacity to kill and degrade upon activation ( Janeway & Travers, 1994 ). The recognition of phagocytic targets is mediated by specific receptors on phagocytes that either recognize serum
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Pappas M. Efthymios, Mpournaka Spiridoula, Katopodis Periklis, Chardalias Andreas, Tsakas Sotiris, Eleftheriadis Theodoros, Papachristou Evangelos, Katopodis P. Konstantinos and Goumenos S. Dimitrios
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20. Ballen, K. K.; Shpall, E. J.; Avigan, D.; Yeap, B. Y.; Fisher, D. C.; McDermott, K.; Dey, B. R.; Attar, E.; McAfee, S.; Konopleva, M.; Antin, J. H.; Spitzer, T. R. Phase I trial of parathyroid hormone to facilitate stem
M. Oltean, R. Gavrea, M. Dumitrache, T. Băguţ, C. Gherman, V. Cozma and A. Györke
The aim of the present experiment was to assess the clinical, haematological, biochemical and immunological responses of pigs experimentally infected with Trichinella spiralis. One group of 6 pigs was infected with 1500 larvae/kg body weight and one group of 7, was maintained as control. The highest larval density was in the diaphragm (504.3 ± 8.2). During the experimental T. spiralis infection in pigs, increased values of total granulocyte number, eosinophils, blood glucose, K+ concentration, CK, ALT, AST and ALP were registered in different stages of infection. A slight increase of the phagocytic activity was registered 14 days p.i., in the infected group. Significantly increased values in lymphocyte activity, in infected group, was observed 30 and 60 days p.i. comparative with control. The specific IgG antibodies were detectable by ELISA at 14 days p.i. The results obtained in this study provide a better understanding about complete interactions occurring during Trichinella infection in pigs.
Svetlana V. Zubova, Yaroslav V. Radzyukevich, Sergey V. Grachev and Isabela R. Prokhorenko
The ability of physiological (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, retinoic acid) and non-physiological (various LPS) agents and their combinations to influence the direction of promonocytic THP-1 cell differentiation was studied.
The differentiating activity of the agents was evaluated by the expression and the ratio of surface receptors (TLR4, CD11b, and CD14) as well as by the change in THP-1 cell phagocytic activity of different degree of differentiation by Flow cytometry.
The THP-1 cell differentiation by VD3 was shown to lead probably to the formation of classical monocytes.
Summarizing we can conclude that VD3 induces the THP-1 cells differentiation with the formation of classical monocytes and the sequence of 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and non-toxic LPS R. capsulatus PG causes the THP-1 cells differentiation with the formation of inflammatory or intermediate monocytes.
Neutrophil functional disorders thought to be uncommon, yet important as a cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children. During the first years of life, when the immune system is still not completely mature, when the viral infections are frequent and antibiotic overuse can damage and alter the immune response, the inadequate nutrition followed with iron deficient anemia and malnutrition can lead the child`s organism in state of immunodeficiency. Sometimes is difficult to distinguish at the beginning weather the cause of patient suffering from frequent infections is existing of primary immunodeficiency disorder or the cause of the immunodeficiency state is just from exogenous factors.
Fortunately, primary immune deficiencies are rare diseases and only 6-7% of all of them, due to the neutrophilic functional disorders. Unfortunately, many exogenous and environmental factors have influence to the immune system, and the percentage of secondary caused neutrophilic functional disorders is much higher and should be considered when children are investigated for immunodeficiency. So, when to suspect neutrophil functional disorder? The hallmarks for diseases related to the neutrophilic functional disorders are discussed in this article.
K. Hlubeňová, D. Mudroňová, R. Nemcová, S. Gancarčíková, M. Maďar and Ľ. Sciranková
on humoral immune response and phagocytosis. Global Veterinaria, 4, 135-139.
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Mariusz Kaczmarek, Joanna Maciejewska, Łukasz Spychalski, Magdalena Socha-Kozłowska, Agata Nowicka and Jan Sikora
vivo application of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Blood. 1991;78(4):885-9.
10. Lukácsi S, Nagy-Baló Z, Erdei A, Sándor N, Bajtay Z. The role of (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) in complement-mediated phagocytosis and podosome formation by human phagocytes. Immunol Lett. 2017;189:64-72; DOI:10.1016/j.imlet.2017.05.014.
11. Robinson JM. Reactive oxygen species in phagocytic leukocyte. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008;130(2):281-97; DOI:10.1007/s00418-008-0461-4.
12. Weinrauch Y, Drujan D, Shapiro SD