-0467.2008.00299.x.  Gutiérrez, J. & Urbano, P. (1996). Accessibility in the European Union: the impact of the Trans European road network. Journal of Transport Geography 4(1), 15–25. DOI: 10.1068/a301337.  Janc, K. (2006). Human and social capital in Poland – spatial diversity and relations. Europa XXI 14, 39–55.  Jeřábek, M. (2006). Research into peripheralareas in the Czech Republic – changes in the landscape and land use in the model regions. Europa XXI 15, 171–183.  Juska, A., Poviliunas A. & Pozzuto, R. (2005). Resisting Marginalisation: The Rise of
Subject and purpose of work: The aim of this paper is to assess the use of EU funds in promotion of peripheral areas on the example of five provinces of Eastern Poland. The detailed objectives are defined as follows: identification of projects co-financed by the EU aimed at promoting economy or tourism, including promotion of tourism-related products and assessment of using the EU funds in promotion of Polish enterprises abroad. Materials and methods: The research material is a database of projects co-financed from EU funds for 2007-2013, projects devoted to carrying out promotional activities (economic or tourist promotion) were selected for the analyses. Results: Spatial and quantitative diversification of promotional activities co-financed from EU funds in Eastern Poland was quite significant, with the highest absorption in the Lublin province. Among beneficiaries implementing promotional projects the largest group were entrepreneurs and local governments, primarily at the commune level. Conclusions: In the examined area, EU funds were used primarily to promote enterprises on foreign markets, also through participation in trade fairs organised on many continents, and to promote economy and tourism of local government units.
Subject and purpose of work: The subject of this analysis and evaluation is the use of renewable energy sources in Poland, particularly in the Lubelskie Voivodeship, as a peripheral region. The purpose of this paper is to identify the role and evaluate the scale and effects of using renewable energy sources (RES), as well as the availability and absorption of financial resources for RES promotion.
Materials and methods: The data were obtained from the Office of the Ruda-Huta Commune, the Regional Operational Programme Department of the Marshal Office of the Lubelskie Voivodeship in Lublin and the Department of European Funds of the Ministry of Energy, as well as Statistics Poland (GUS) and the literature on the subject.
Results: In Poland the proportion of energy from renewable sources to the total primary energy generated increased in 2012-2018 from 11.73% to 14.46%. A new phenomenon, which has been highly significant for the development of this sector, is the use of innovative, small-scale technologies of energy generation from renewable sources, which created the foundations for the growth of a citizens’ energy sector, based on the initiative of the citizens and their communities. The use of RES contributes to reduced expenditures on the purchase of energy carriers and constitutes an effective method of implementing plans for developing a low-carbon economy and reducing low-stack emissions.
Conclusions: The continuing disparities between the regions point to the need for active structural intervention to maintain economic, social and territorial cohesion, particularly in areas which are considered peripheral and have a very low GDP per capita. One of the preferred directions should be to support the use of RES.
PeripheralAreas. AUC Geographica, 46(1): 43–52. POLSKA RADA CENTRÓW HANDLOWYCH (2016): Katalog Centrów Handlowych [online]. [cit. 23.04.2016] Available at: http://www.prch.org.pl/katalog-ch SCHMIDT, M. H. (1998): An Integrated Systematic Approach to Marginal Regions: from definition to development policies. In: Jussila, H., Leimgruber, W., Majoral, R. [eds.]: Perception of Marginality: theoretical issues and regional perceptions of marginality in geographical space (pp. 45–66). Aldershot, Ashgate. SEMIAN, M., CHROMÝ, P. (2014): Regional identity as a driver or a barrier
Relationships between the activities of bus carriers and rail passenger traffic (and the railway offer) are examined in this article. The study was carried out in peripheral areas located at the Polish and Czech borderlands in Lower Silesia province. High quality rail transport generally increases the demand for transport services. Therefore, the proper development of transport offer plays a key role in the functioning of public transport systems, the backbone of which is rail transport. The study also shows that under conditions of transport market deregulation, bus carriers have developed a competitive network which is not complementary to rail transport. As a consequence, the deregulation of the transport market has increased the risk of transport exclusion.
The paper deals with border regions in Poland, which are regarded as a specific type of peripheral areas. The aim of this paper was to assess the Polish-Czech and Polish-Slovak border cooperation at the local level and to compare it to the Polish- German border. The studies were based on the analysis of the microprojects qualified for implementation under the Microprojects Fund within INTERREG IIIA programmes. Particular emphasis was put on the type characteristic of the projects and institutional structure of beneficiaries. Moreover, the relationships between analysed features were studied. The spatial distribution of projects was also examined. The role of Euroregions in the process of cross-border co-operation implementation was described. The analysis of the microprojects was carried out for the Poland’s southern border and the western one, as well as for particular Euroregions.
The Conditions of Development of Peripheral Areas in the Context of Present-Day Transformations of the International Environment
The author of the article has tried to analyse the influence of transformations taking place in the international environment on the development of the countries and peripheral regions (i.e. regions that are underdeveloped in economic terms). It has been indicated that spontaneous globalisation and liberalisation - on the level of national and regional economies - intensify side effects of the market mechanism which is manifested as adversely growing development imbalances. Market fallibility points to the need of enclosing these processes in institutional frameworks, which would correct market regulations. Compensatory cohesion policy of the European Union makes integration processes more attractive to the underdeveloped countries and regions than the offer of global capitalism. However, overcoming mutual discrepancies between social goals and economic effectiveness still remains a challenge. On the other hand, evolving towards an information society and a knowledge-based society supports holistic and interdisciplinary thinking, where economic rationality is but one of a number of aspects, and not the key issue. Such tendencies favour dissemination of principles of humanism which motivate to reduce unnecessary development disproportions and to carry out sustainable development. At the same time, the fact that some areas are underdeveloped while functioning in a knowledge-based economy is mainly due to the quality factor, hence it is more durable by nature and it requires more time to be eliminated.
impact of entrepreneurs’ environmental analysis strategy on organizational performance (forthcoming). Journal of Rural Studies . DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.04.008.  Deller, S., Kures, M. & Conroy, T. (2019). Rural entrepreneurship and migration. Journal of Rural Studies, 66 , 30–42. DOI: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2019.01.026.  Dinis, A. (2006). Marketing and innovation: Useful tools for competitiveness in rural and peripheralareas. European Planning Studies, 14 (1), 9–22. DOI: 10.1080/09654310500339083.  Erlingsson, C. & Brysiewicz, P. (2017). A hands-on guide
In most Alpine regions with current negative migratory balance, new in-migration from urban areas has meanwhile become a relevant factor. However, this phenomenon is insignificant in Austria’s Eastern Alps. The aim of this thesis-led work is to empirically demonstrate the main reasons for this demographically exceptional position. The Styrian-Lower Austrian Limestone Alps, representing the peripheral core area of Austria's Eastern Alps, were chosen as the study area, as in this region the population decline and above all, migratory losses are particularly high. Through various qualitative and quantitative data acquisition techniques it was shown that new inmigration is still insignificant. The main reasons for this are the perseverance of large estates and the dominance of forestry.
OF THE BOOK BY AGATA BALIŃSKA TITLED
“THE IMPORTANCE OF TOURISM IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL
COMMUNITIES BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE PERIPHERALAREAS OF THE EASTERN BORDERLAND OF POLAND”
SGGW PUBLISHING HOUSE, WARSAW 2016, P. 300
RECENZJA KSIĄŻKI AGATY BALIŃSKIEJ PT. „ZNACZENIE TURYSTYKI W
ROZWOJU GMIN WIEJSKICH NA PRZYKŁADZIE OBSZARÓW PERYFERYJNYCH
WSCHODNIEGO POGRANICZA POLSKI”
WYDAWNICTWO SGGW, WARSZAWA 2016, S. 300
Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska
Państwowa Szkoła Wyższa im. Papieża Jana Pawła