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The soccer goalkeeper's reaction speed to stimulus is essential for the overall success rate of goalkeepers in soccer. Our research was aimed at finding out the impact of age and agility performance level on the length of the disjunctive reaction time of elite goalkeepers in Slovakia. The research group was comprised of 24 goalkeepers of two Slovak soccer clubs (in group A were elite players and in group B sub-elite players). To gain the research data, the disjunctive reaction time was measured using the Fitro Agility Check device. The acquired results were statistically evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U-Test and Cohen's “d”. The impact of age (n.s) and performance level (n.s) on the length of the disjunctive reaction time of goalkeepers was not statistically confirmed. However, the substantive and logical significance showed that the best goalkeepers achieved a considerably shorter time of disjunctive reaction time to the set stimulus (difference – 20 %).


An important role among protective means play the elements of control systems performing safety functions. When the validation process of a safety performance level(PL) achieved by those systems is conducted properly one can draw the conclusion that any defect appearing in those systems would not cause the loss of safety functions. The paper presents formalized validation of the PL procedures for different categories and PL’s for introducing into the computer program which makes more efficient all the operations involved into the validation and documentation processes of safety performance level achieved by machine control systems.


The article presents a method for determining the performance level (PL) on the basis of the PN-EN ISO 13849-1 standard, which is harmonized with the machinery directive 2006/42/EC. The risk assessment and risk reduction criteria, according to PN-EN ISO 12100, were briefly characterized. The focus was put on determining the required performance level PLr on the basis of a risk graph. The method was presented how to use a safety function composed of input-, logicaland execution subsystems. It was demonstrated how to determine the achieved PL for a safety function composed of hardware elements on the basis of a safety category, mean time to dangerous failures (MTTFd), diagnostic coverage (DC), and immunity to common cause failures (CCF).


This paper shows that the experimental group who are exposed to DVD Video Lesson that uses code switching language has an average mean score in the pretest of 1.56, and this increased to an average mean of 3.50 in the posttest. The control group that uses DVD Video Lesson that uses purely English language got an average mean of 1.06 in the pretest and increased to 1.53 in the posttest. Based on the results of the performance posttest taken by the two groups, the experimental group has a dramatic increase in scores from the pretest to posttest. Although both groups had increased in their performance scores from pretest to posttest, the experimental group (code switching language) performs well in the posttest than the control group. As revealed in this findings , there is a significant difference in the posttest scores between the experimental group who are exposed to DVD lesson that uses code switching as a medium of instruction and the control group who are exposed to DVD lesson that uses English. The students who are exposed to the Video Lesson that uses code switching perform well than those students who are exposed in DVD video lesson that uses purely English language. DVD Video lesson that uses code switching as a medium of instruction in teaching social dance is the useful approach in teaching Grade 10 Special Program in the Art students. The language used (code switching) is the powerful medium of instruction that enhances the learning outcomes of the students to perform well. This paper could be an eye opener to the Department of Education to inculcate the used of first language/local language or MTB-MLE, not only in Grade I to III but all level in K to 12 programs, since education is a key factor for building a better nation.

various distances; consequently, knowing whether pacing varies with distance might help them to adjust their pacing strategies accordingly. Furthermore, profiling the relative contribution of swimming, cycling and running to the overall race time by the performance level may guide triathletes to select optimal pacing strategies, depending on their competition goal. A further consideration is that triathletes competing in long-distance races may have a background in swimming, cycling or running. Thus, athletes with a strong background in a specific discipline want to

differentiating distinct levels of performance, i.e., between selected and non-selected soccer players, which will significantly reduce the time and costs of decision making. Recently, Honer et al. (2015) showed that physical tests together with soccer-specific technical skills (e.g. speed, dribbling, shooting) help in objectively differentiating between players of different performance levels. Furthermore, Huijgen et al. (2014) investigated sets of traits that distinguished between the Netherlands’ selected and non-selected youth players and found that 69% of selected

Competitive Anxiety and Coping Strategies in Young Martial Arts and Track and Field Athletes

This study is an examination of the relationship between competitive anxiety and coping strategies in young athletes. Sixty karatekas and 72 track and field athletes were the subjects of the study. The age of the athletes ranged between 18 and 25 years. All had been practicing their sports for 6-8 years. The research instruments employed are the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS).

Results show that martial arts athletes reported a significantly higher level of self-confidence and lower levels of cognitive and somatic anxiety compared to track and field athletes. The two groups also differed in regard to the use of coping strategies in stressful situations. For example, the karate athletes used more effective strategies such as task-oriented coping. In the next step of the study, the subjects were divided into two groups according to the level of performance (i.e. "winners" and "losers"). The "losers exhibited higher levels of anxiety, both cognitive and somatic, than "winners". They also had higher scores on less effective coping subscales, e.g. emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented.

There is a significant interdependence between anxiety and level of performance in competitive stress situations. Future research should also consider the possible mediating role of other psychological factors, such as personality traits.


The authors have evaluated the combined track-and-field events performed by the female students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport of Comenius University in Bratislava (CU FPES) in the years 2013 – 2017. The combined track-and-field events are an obligatory part of the final Athletics examination in the teacher-training study program. The selected disciplines reflect the first day of the men’s decathlon with the exception of the last one, which is replaced by 800 m. The number of points in the combined event enters into the overall assessment of the subject Didactics of Athletics II together with an oral examination. The authors analysed not only the total number of points in the pentathlon but also in the individual disciplines and their percentage share in the final result. They have discovered that the shot put and high jump are among the most stable disciplines. The greatest variance of the percentage share in the overall number of points was observed in the 100 m dash, 800 m and in the long jump. The performance of a high number of students (almost two-thirds) came below the average performance in the particular year as expressed in points.


The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000-2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players' needs regarding the actions they perform. Player´s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females.

Asymmetry of Step Length in Relationship to Leg Strength in 200 meters Sprint of different Performance Levels

The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare asymmetry of stride length during 200 m sprint in different levels of performance. Six sprinters from national and regional levels participated in the study. They were assigned to 3 groups: school-boys (novice sprinters) junior (intermediate) and senior (advance - national and regional level) category. This study investigated selected kinematic parameters with special focus on stride length. The resulting values were measurements of each stride length (rounded-off to nearest full centimeter) during a 200 m sprint, using a manual stride measurement method. The findings indicate that the asymmetry of stride length exists in all categories, and the impact on decreasing velocities of the youngest sprinters (school-boys) are significantly associated with shorter strides, whereas cadence has little change. However, when a statistical adjustment was made for each group of runners it was found that more advanced runners did not have a significantly higher level of asymmetry with stride length at any given velocity.