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; Ogana & Dau, 2019 ). These methods vary in complexity; and as such, there is a need for developing a simplified method of estimating the parameters of LogL for characterising tree diameter distributions. The percentile estimator is a good substitute to the MLE ( Clutter et al ., 1983 ). This method has not been used to estimate the parameter of LogL in forestry. A simplified estimation method for the LogL function will increase its application in diameter distribution yield systems. Generally, diameter distribution yield systems predict values for the parameters of

References Arroyo V, Díaz J, Carmona R, Ortiz C, Lin-ares C. 2016. Impact of air pollution and temperature on adverse birth outcomes: Madrid, 2001–2009. Environ Pollut 218:1154–61. Badade A, Bhide A, Satoskar P, Wadekar D. 2013. Validation of the global reference for fetal weight and birth weight percentiles. Indian J Radiol Imaging 23:266. Beeckman K, van De Putte S, Putman K, Louckx F. 2009. Predictive social factors in relation to preterm birth in a metropolitan region. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 88:787–92. Bobak M, Pikhart H, Rose R, Hertzman C, Marmot M. 2000

Abstract

The objective of the research was to prepare longitudinal percentile curves for the BMI (kg/m2) relative to time before and after peak height velocity (PHV) in Japanese boys and girls born between 1989 and 1991. Stature and weight were measured in every April from 6.5 to 16.5 years for 283 boys and 480 girls. Age at PHV was estimated by the proportional allotment method. The 50th percentile curves for the BMI of Japanese boys and girls born between 1989 and 1991 were similar to the corresponding curves for Japanese boys and girls born between 1972 and 1974. However, the 97th percentiles of children born between 1989 and 1991 were higher and the corresponding 3rd percentiles were lower compared to children born between 1972 and 1974. The differences can be attributed to the influence of early maturing children born between 1989 and 1991 on the 97th percentiles and of late maturing children born between 1989 and 1991 on the 3rd percentiles. The results highlight the need to consider the timing of maturity, in this case, age at PHV, when interpreting the BMI of adolescents.

Summary

The aim of the study was to develop the norms for physical growth (birth weight-, birth height- and head circumference- for age) of the full-term babies born from singleton pregnancy in UMHAT „Dr. G. Stranski” – Pleven (total, by gender and gestational age at birth). A cross-sectional study was carried-out in 2017; 1092 live infants born from singleton pregnancy between 38 and 42 weeks were included in the study. We obtained information about three anthropometric measurements (birth weight-, birth height- and head circumference-for age). Data were processed by SPSS v.24.0. Norm group ranges (3, 5 and 7 groups) were developed for three indicators using percentile methods. Kruskal-Wallis test was used. The mean birth weight- and height-for age were higher for baby boys (P50, 3280 g and 50 cm) compared with baby girls (P50, 3150 g and 49 cm). Baby boys and girls weighed <2570 g at birth fell into the group ,,very slow growth” (P3). A ,,very fast growth” (P97) was found in baby boys weighed >4120 g at birth (vs. >3870 g for baby girls). Norm group ranges allow to identify the newborns with a higher risk and to focus efforts and health resources to them; it should be updated periodically.

Abstract

Recent upward trends toward elevated blood pressure and increased weight expressed in terms of body mass index in children and adolescents call for regular monitoring of their physical growth and age-related changes in blood pressure. This requires adequate tools - reference values of a normal blood pressure range. The main objective of this study was to provide sex- and BMI-specific percentile reference values for systolic and diastolic blood pressure based on the adolescent Polish population, participants in the ADOPOLNOR study. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative, randomly selected cohort of 4,941; 2,451 male and 2,490 female students aged 10-18 years, residents in Wielkopolska province and its capital, the city of Poznań. All examinations were performed in school nursery rooms during morning hours according to standard procedures. Body height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Blood pressure was measured twice on each occasion on the right arm using a fully calibrated TECH MED TM-Z mercury gauge sphygmomanometer with sets of exchangeable cuffs and a clinical stethoscope. The blood pressure classification was determined using the surveillance method. For each participant, the mean of measurements taken on each of the three occasions was calculated and served as his/her final blood pressure value. Using the LMS method, fitted percentile curves were created for BMI-related systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The findings revealed that age related blood pressure pattern was similar in boys and girls. It showed a steady increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure with age. There was a positive correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicating that when systolic blood pressure increased so diastolic did (r=0.61 at p<0.01). Boys were likely to have relatively higher mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and steeper slope for BMI-related change in blood pressure than girls. Similar pattern was found for age-related changes in BMI. The quotation of 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th, and 97th at any given BMI between 12 kg/m2 and 35 kg/m2 provided indication of the entire variation in blood pressure of adolescent males and females aged 10-18 years. The sex- and BMI-specific reference values and charts for systolic and diastolic blood pressure may be a useful tool in monitoring blood pressure for early detection of its abnormal level and treatment of children and adolescents with high blood pressure.

1 Introduction The impacts of climate change on large nutrient transport events are not well-studied, even though in agricultural regions, nutrients applied as fertilizer can be lost from row crops more readily in the future as soil loss is enhanced through higher precipitation amounts and greater intensities ( Michael et al., 2005 ; Hancock, 2012 ). For example, in western Germany, since 1950, heavy and extreme precipitation events (95 th and 99 th percentiles) increased by 5–13% per decade in winter, spring, and autumn, and showed decreasing tendencies of 3

(Silver Spring) 15: 2825-2831, 2007. 16. O'Neill JL, McCarthy SN, Burke SJ et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Irish school children, using four different definitions. Eur J Clin Nutr 61: 743-751, 2007. 17. Fernández JR, Redden DT, Pietrobelli A, Allison DB. Waist circumference percentiles in nationally representative samples of African-American, European-American, and Mexican-American children and adolescents. J Pediatr 145: 439-444, 2004. 18. Marshall WA, Tanner JM. Variations in the pattern of pubertal changes in boys. Arch Dis Child 45: 13

). Table 1 Anthropometric and fitness variables for the whole group (N = 64) as well as the selected (n = 20) and non-qualified (n = 44) junior female volleyball players. Values are presented as mean ± SD. Groups All (N = 64) Selected (n = 20) Non-qualified (n = 44) Variables Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Difference Between groups CI90% of difference Cohen's d p Coaches’ grading 77.8 ± 9.9 88.8 ± 3.4* 72.8 ± 7.6 16.0 12.9 to 18.9 2.44 0.001 Age (y) 14.4 ± 0.5 14.3 ± 0.7 14.4 ± 0.5 -0.1 -0.38 to 0.10 -0.26 0.35 Body height Percentile (%) 96.6 ± 6.1 99.2 ± 1.6 § 95.4 ± 7

percentile classes focusing on highly cited papers, one can set {top 1%, top 2%, top 3%,…} series constructing an artificially processed series. As h-top is a naturally fixed number, it becomes a natural definite top in the series of highly cited classes. As the processed objects keep concordance, the second-order h-type indices and h-top are unique. We will illustrate the proposed method with the following empirical cases. 3 Empirical cases For the empirical examples, we extracted publications from the Web of Science (WoS), including Science Citation Index – Expanded (SCI

Abstract

In this paper, we introduced a generalization of the raised cosine distribution. We also provided its several distributional properties and characterizations, including percentiles and some applications.