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The effects of psychological stress, gender and age on hair and skin pigmentation levels were evaluated in the reported study. The material included Polish high-school and university students aged 18-22 (in the age range 17.50-22.49). All subjects who had sunbathed or used tanning beds or lamps, skin tanning agents, tanning extenders and/or medical agents affecting skin pigmentation during the 60 days preceding the beginning of the study were excluded. The use of hormonal contraceptives within a month prior to the study was also an excluding factor. Stress levels were evaluated by the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) in the Polish adaptation, while hair and skin pigmentation levels were assessed with a dermaspectrometer (Cortex Technology®, Denmark, 2007). The study was carried out with the exclusion of the summer period. Skin pigmentation was evaluated in 395 subjects (264 women and 131 men). Hair pigmentation was analyzed in a smaller group of 351 subjects (223 women and 128 men), as some had had their hair dyed within 12 months prior to the study while in some others the hair was too short to be correctly measured.

Regardless of their age, the studied women felt much more stress related to their life situation and were characterized by stronger skin pigmentation than the examined men. No sex differences were identified with regard to hair pigmentation. In the studied period of ontogenesis (18-22 years of age), hair pigmentation levels increased with age, while skin melanization remained stable. Disregarding the effects of age and sex, the level of perceived stress was negatively correlated with skin pigmentation levels; no such relationship was found for hair melanization.

., & Hernández, R. L. (2013). The perceived stress scale (PSS): Normative data and factor structure for a large-scale sample in Mexico. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 16(e47), 1-9. doi: 10.1017/ sjp.2013.35 Grayson, J. L., & Alvarez, H. K. (2008). School climate factors relating to teacher burnout: A mediator model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24, 1349-1363. Habermas, J. (1990). Moral consciousness and communicative action. Cambridge, MA: MIT press. Hakanen, J. J., Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2006). Burnout and work engagement among teachers. Journal of School

). The Lithuanian version of the MSPSS reported an internal consistency value of .61 for the entire scale ( Malinauskas, 2010 ). A total indicator of perceived social support (MSPSS-Total) was calculated by averaging items in the present study. The coefficient alpha for the whole scale was .71 for the present sample. Perceived Stress Scale–10 (PSS-10) The Perceived Stress Scale–10 is a 10-item, self-report inventory that assesses the degree to which situations in an individual's life are appraised as stressful ( Cohen et al., 1983 ). PSS-10 items were designed to

support were surveyed for social background. Perceived stress was assessed using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) ( 34 ). The PSS consists of multiple choice questions and measures stressful experiences and responses to stress over the previous 4 weeks. Items used a 4-point Likert scale response format, ranging from ‘never’ (0) to ‘very often’ ( 4 ). Questions that relate negative events or responses were scored in reverse manner. Scores were obtained by averaging their responses to all the items of the scale. The results of the scores were compared with scores

of 50% ( Kane, 2019 ). For regression analysis, a minimum of 194 participants were required for an anticipated effect size of 0.15 (f 2 ), alpha error of 0.05 and statistical power of 95 and 14 predictors. The participants responded to a self-administered paper based survey comprising of five parts: a) demographics b) Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), c) Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), d) Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and e) Perceived Stress Scale-4 (PSS-4). Time for completion of the survey was estimated at 20 minutes and


Aim. The study was to assess the level of stress and the health locus of control in parents of hospitalized newborns.

Material and methods. The study covered a group of 150 parents of 126 newborns who were hospitalized in the Neonatal Pathology Ward at the University Children’s Hospital in Lublin. The diagnostic survey method was applied with the use of an original questionnaire as well as some standardized tools: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC – version B).

Results. In more than a half of the subjects (54.0%), a high level of stress was observed. Every fourth (26.1%) parent was characterized by an average level of stress and nearly every fifth (19.3%) by a low level of stress. The highest indicator was characterized by the domain of the internal health control locus. Every fifth parent represented an undifferentiated type - weak or magnifying the impact of others (22.0% and 20.0% respectively). The smallest group of parents (5.3%) belonged to the externally-oriented, strong type. Conclusions. The parents of hospitalized newborns are characterized mainly by high and average levels of stress and low level of severity of health control location within each of its domains. The highest indicator of internal locus control and the influence of others are characterized by parents with low and average levels of stress. The dominant type of locus of health control that characterizes parents is the undifferentiated type – weak and magnifying the impact of others.


Introduction. Work on a farm is characterized by many dangers that result from the action of biological, chemical and mechanical factors harmful to the functioning of the human body. Farmers experience the psychological and physical burden a lot.

Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the overall perceived stress intensity index, coping strategies and stress generating factors in the group of people working on a farm, as well as to determine the relationship between these variables and sociodemographic factors.

Material and methods. The study was conducted in 2019 and 165 people working on a farm located in Lesser Poland participated in it. Standardized research tools were used – the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Brief COPE Inventory and original questionnaire. During the data analysis the significance level was α = 0.05.

Results. Over half of the respondents felt average levels of stress. People working on a farm used the strategies: Active coping, Planning, Acceptance the most often, and the strategies: Substance use, Denial and Behavioural disengagement – the least. There is a relationship between the perception of stress and age, the level of agricultural education and the professional status of the respondents.

Conclusions. Most of the people working on the farm felt the average level of stress and they were dealing with this mainly using problem-oriented strategies. However, with the increase in tension caused by stress, respondents significantly more often reached for less effective remedial strategies


Introduction: The healthcare workers are at high risk of developing stress-related problems during outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the perceived stress and its relation to the duration of dealing with COVID-19 patients in medical doctors.

Methods: The doctors who work in different medical settings in Iraqi Kurdistan during coronavirus outbreak were invited into this cross-sectional study. The doctors were invited from one pediatric, one emergency, one special corona, and one maternity and gynecology hospital. The “Perceived Stress Scale -10 (PSS)” measured the perceived degree of a doctor who experienced stress. The information was collected through a web-based technique to avoid the disease spread.

Results: Doctors’ mean duration of dealing with suspected/confirmed cases of COVID-19 was 1.2 (Range: 0-16 days). The mean stress score was 18.81 out of 40. Most of the doctors had a moderate level of stress (69.4%), followed by a low (21.1%) and a high level of stress (9.6%). The general physicians and medical lab specialties had higher stress scores; 21.56 and 19.88, respectively. The high level of stress was among general physicians and community and family medicine doctors; 20.0% and 25.0%, respectively. Whether or not doctors dealt with suspected/confirmed cases of COVID-19, did not have a significant difference over the perceived stress score; 19.02 vs. 18.87; P=0.786). The mean score of stress was raised with increasing duration of dealing with suspected/confirmed cases of COVID-19; r=0.202; P=0.004 and decreased with increasing age (r=-0.141; P=0.045), and clinical experience (r=-0.139, P=0.048).

Conclusion: This study showed that medical doctors are at a moderate level of perceived stress during the COVID-19 outbreak in Iraqi Kurdistan.


Introduction. The aim of this article is to discuss the relationship between affective states experienced by athletes and the outcome of their performance. The article presents the findings of a pilot study which made it possible to determine the relationship between the emotional states, mood, and level of stress of a group of pentathletes and the outcomes they achieved in a sports competition. Material and methods. The study involved 12 senior modern pentathletes, including 7 male and 5 female athletes. The following standard psychology questionnaires were used in the study: the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and the Profile of Mood State (POMS). Performance was assessed based on the number of points achieved by the pentathletes in particular events in the pentathlon, which are held according to the rules set by the International Modern Pentathlon Union (UIPM). Results. The findings of the study confirmed that there was a correlation between the athletes’ mood and emotions and the outcome of their performance. The level of stress strongly negatively correlated with both the outcome they expected to achieve and the one they actually achieved for the combined event (running and shooting). For this event a relationship was also found between the athletes’ affective states and their outcomes: in running and shooting there was a positive and statistically significant correlation between the level of positive emotions and anger and the results achieved. However, friendliness, one of the other affective state variables that were measured, correlated negatively with the outcomes of the athletes’ performance. Conclusions. In the group of pentathletes who participated in the study, a high level of anger was associated with better outcomes, and a high level of friendliness had an adverse effect on the results achieved. The findings of the current study confirm that there is a relationship between affective states and performance outcomes, but the findings do not correspond with Morgan’s iceberg profile.

w radzeniu sobie ze stresem. Meritum. 2010;4:31-6. 12. Kossakowska K. Źródła wsparcia społecznego i wybrane sposoby radzenia sobie u kobiet z objawami depresji poporodowej. Probl Pielęg. 2012;20(3):310-6. 13. Kowalska J, Olszowa D, Markowska D, et al. Aktywność fizyczna i szkoła rodzenia w czasie ciąży a poziom postrzeganego stresu i objawów depresyjnych u kobiet po porodzie. Psychiatr Pol. 2014;48(5):889-900. 14. Chaaya M, Osman H, Naassan G, et al. Validation of the Arabic version of the Cohen perceived stress scale (PSS - 10) among pregnant and postpartum women