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This study investigated the influence of social capital on members′ consumption per capita income and poverty alleviation in Cooperative Thrift and Credit Society of Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger state- Nigeria. Low income level and poverty influence the employees of the polytechnic to partake in cooperative society through the contribution of money/credit referred to as social capital. Data were collected using field research survey approach involving hand delivery of questionnaire. Simple random technique of probability sampling method was used to draw a sample size of 255 members from the population of 702 academic and non- academic members of the cooperative society. The regression results indicated that social capital dimension such as educational qualification and membership duration has significant influence on consumption while social capital indicator such as income and educational qualification has significant influence on poverty alleviation. Other variables such as gender, marital status, work status and savings were insignificant. The study therefore recommends that regulators and policy makers should encourage savings mobilization from members′ income or salary in order to boost consumption and alleviate poverty. This is because income has insignificant influence on consumption and significant influence on poverty alleviation in Cooperative Thrift and Credit Society of Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger state. The results of this study are unique and worth in solving problems that are facing cooperative associations in Nigeria.

Linear? An Empirical Examination of the Case of China , [in:] Foreign Direct Investment, China and the World Economy, Palgrave Macmillan, London. Burgess M.R., Haksar M.V., 2005, Migration and foreign remittances in the Philippines , no. 5-111, International Monetary Fund. Cherodian R., Thirlwall A.P., 2015, Regional disparities in per capita income in India: Convergence or divergence? , Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 37(3), pp. 384-407. Du W., Tepper A., Verdelhan A., 2018, Deviations from covered interest rate parity , The Journal of Finance, 73(3), pp


Research background: Poverty, unemployment, literacy and per capita income are intertwined. However, there seems to be a disconnect between literacy and good living in Nigeria.

Purpose: This study investigated the dynamic relationship between poverty, unemployment, literacy and per capita income in Nigeria by examining the impact, shocks and responses among these identified variables.

Research methodology: The secondary data on poverty, unemployment and literacy rates were extracted from the National Bureau of Statistics and per capita income was extracted from the World Bank Annual Report. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model of lag order (4) was adopted for the study.

Results: The results revealed that poverty rate is an increasing function of unemployment rate and literacy rate and a reducing function of per capita income. The results further showed that dynamics of poverty is affected by shocks in unemployment rate, literacy rate and per capita income.

Novelty: Therefore, the study concluded that literacy rate fails as a vital tool for poverty reduction and that the high rate of unemployment results in chronic poverty. The application of VAR to untangle the interrelationship among the variables, without doubt, adds to the literature on the uses of the VAR model.


This article analyses the convergence across Polish regions between 2005-2011. Its theoretical and empirical character determined the choice of research methods. The theoretical part includes an analysis of the literature devoted to the convergence theory, and the empirical part is based on statistical surveys. Statistical data used in the article was taken from the following databases: for the United Kingdom - Office for National Statistics; for Finland - Statistic Finland; for Poland and the rest of the countries - Statistical Yearbook of the Regions - Poland from 2005 to 2013. The studies confirmed that in Poland a strong concentration of economic activity took place in analyzed period. The convergence of per capita GDP did not apply. Rich regions grew faster than poor ones. The convergence of labour productivity did not apply either. The divergence of the K/L relation determined the divergence of labour productivity in the analyzed period. In the last part of the article the author analyzed the convergence across regions in EU countries. In case of countries that gained the accession to the EU on 1 May 2004, convergence did not apply. On the other hand, rich countries of EU like Austria, Belgium or the Netherlands confirmed the phenomenon of convergence at the NUTS level in analyzed period.


While developed and most developing nations have seen the need and continue to invest heavily in the development and training of her manpower as shown by huge budgetary allocations to education and health, Nigeria continues to play politics with her human capital development policy which has been poor and only been effective on paper despite the huge outlay of human capital available at our disposal. This study therefore examined the impact of human capital development on the macroeconomic performance of Nigeria. Using autoregressive distributed lagged model, the study proxied human capital development using government expenditure on education, government expenditure on health, secondary school enrolment rate, and school enrolment rate at tertiary level, while per capita GDP was used as proxy variable for measuring macroeconomic performance.

The results of the estimated short and long run ARDL models indicated, an insignificant and negative relationship between human capital development and gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC) in the short run. Another result of this study is that, only tertiary enrolment rate (TER) has a significant and positive impact on gross domestic product per capita (GDPPC). This finding was an indication of relatively good but insufficient efforts by government to boost human capital. The study concluded that while human capital development is crucial for accelerated macroeconomic performance, government efforts aimed at boosting human capital has had a depressing effect on macroeconomic performance. On the strength of this, the study recommended that government and economic policy makers in Nigeria should place greater emphasis on human capital development.


The basic objective of the work was to verify the hypothesis regarding the existence of the correlation between the income potential of the municipalities and the efficiency (relative) of their activity. The basis for such a hypothesis were some concerns as to the validity of the assumed system of funding territorial local governments in Poland- in particular in the area of fiscal transfers. A nonparametric method for the evaluation of relative efficiency - the DEA CCR-O was used in the research. Then the correlation between efficiency scores and local government revenues per capita was measured. The study includes 573 urban-rural municipalities in Poland in the years 2009, 2013, and 2016. As variable “input” expenditures per-capita were adopted. As “outputs”, 13 variables describing the basic areas of municipal activity were adopted. The results of the conducted analyses point to the existence of a correlation between the commune’s revenue level and the effectiveness of its functioning. In the whole of the analysed period, the correlation fluctuated around -0.34 to -0.42 for total pc revenues and -0.26 to -0.32 for pc own revenues.

dispersion, with an equal impact of trade related costs. However, the authors are aware of the fact that the prices of tradable goods are affected by non-tradable elements; therefore, it is difficult to distinguish between costs and mark-ups. Simonovska (2015) is tackling this issue analysing the relationship between the price of on-line tradable goods and per capita income. The author is using a dataset of prices on apparel products produced by a Spanish manufacturer, which are sold in 29 various countries (23 EU member states). The examined products are only available


This study analyzes empirically the relationship between land quality decline and the spatial distribution of per capita income observed in Italy at different spatial scales and geographical divisions. The aim of this contribution is to verify if a decline in land quality has higher probability to occur in economically disadvantaged areas and if scale may influence this relationship. Per capita income was considered a proxy indicator for the level of socio-economic development and life quality in the investigated area. Changes over time (1990-2000) of a composite index of land quality and per capita income in Italy were regressed at four spatial scales: (i) 20 NUTS-2 regions, (ii) 103 NUTS-3 prefectures, (iii) 784 local districts designed as Local Labour Market Areas (LLMAs), and (iv) 8,101 LAU-1 municipalities. Different specifications were tested, including first, second and third order polynomial equations. Linear models allowed the best fit for data examined at all spatial scales. However, elasticity of the dependent variable to per capita income varied considerably according to scale suggesting that developmental policies may have a limited impact on land quality in vulnerable southern Italian areas compared to northern and central Italy. This study suggests that geographically disaggregated data simulating different spatial levels of governance may offer further insights compared to cross-country datasets indicating targets for multi-scale policies possibly preventing a poverty-desertification spiral.


In this paper analyzes the problem of the dynamics of income and expenditure of households in Albania. Analyzing costs in general, spending on food in particular, both connected with a range of other indicators of welfare, with per capita income, expenses for the basket of goods, according to its elements and structure. Survey basket expenditure according to regions of Albania. Analyzed per capita income, expenses basket compared with countries in the region, Europe and the world. The goal is: to extract an accurate conclusion, the place at which ranks Albania in these indicators. What to do in the future, in order to emerge from this negative situation. The conclusions drawn from the analysis are: Albania ranks last places of the world, the indicator of per capita income and expenditure of households. Ranked in first countries in the region and in Europe for the indication of the percentage of expenditure on food and non-alcoholic drinks to the total cost of items in the basket. This situation has come as a result of lower rates of growth of its economy. It recommended changes in the structure of GDP in terms of growth of light industry and food industry extraction and processing, etc. By developing these branches will grow faster GDP and national income, and consequently will increase per capita income. Methods used are: methods of analysis and synthesis, methods of description and comparison, statistical methods etc.

Evolution of Regional Disparities in Poland

The article presents the state of and changes in the pattern of regional disparities in Poland over the years 1995-2007. The differences in the level of economic development of regions are examined in a dynamic approach on the basis of per capita income, indices of local government finances, and investment outlays. The effect of development-activating factors on regional income is considered. An answer is sought to the question of whether the growth dynamics had a favourable effect on the evolution of regional disparities in Poland.