of Confucianism in China or East Asia and of democracy in the West. This leaves a gap for smaller countries such as Vietnam, where the influence of both Confucianism and democracy is felt widely and differently ( Vuong et al. 2018 ). Theoretically, this paper offers an unconventional understanding of democracy in the Confucian tradition through the concept of “peopleastheroots” (民本).
In addition, studies on the topic have also overlooked the texts of ancient rulers, who were influenced by Confucianism to uphold the mandate of Heaven, all the while striving for