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Adsorption of penicillin by decaffeinated tea waste

LITERATURE CITED 1. Ania, C.O., Pelay o, J.G. & Bandosz, T. J. (2011). Reactive adsorption of penicillin on activated carbons. Adsorption 17, 421–429. DOI: 10.1007/s10450-010-9271-9. 2. Choi, K.J., Kim, S.G. & Kim, S.H. (2008). Removal of antibiotics by coagulation and granular activated carbon Filtration. J. Hazard. Mater. 151, 38–43. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.05.059. 3. Al-Ahmad, A., Daschner, F.D. & Kummerer, K. (1999). Biodegradability of cefotiam, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, penicillin G, and sulfamethoxazole and inhibition of waste

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Withdrawal of amoxicillin and penicillin G procaine from milk after intramammary administration in dairy cows with mastitis

References 1. Bengtsson B., Jacobsson S.O., Luthman J., Franklin A.: Pharmacokinetics of penicillin-G in ewes and cows in late pregnancy and in early lactation. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1997, 20, 258–261. 2. Błądek T, Posyniak A, Gajda A, Gbylik M, Żmudzki J.: Multi-class procedure for analysis of antibacterial compounds in animal tissues by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2011, 55, 741–748. 3. Bruno F., Curini R., di Corcia A., Nazzari M., Samperi R.: Solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography

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Pharmacokinetics of penicillin antibiotics: intravenous-to-oral switch therapy

Farmakokinetika Penicilinskih Antibiotikov: Preklop iz Intravenske na Peroralno Terapijo

Penicilinski antibiotiki delujejo baktericidno in spadajo med časovno odvisne antibiotike. Za večino penicilinov je značilna kratka razpolovna doba eliminacije. Benzilpenicilini se po peroralni aplikaciji ne absorbirajo, ampicilin in kloksacilin se sicer absorbirata, vendar slabo, medtem ko se amoksicilin skoraj v celoti absorbira. Pri slednjem je smotrno z intravenske terapije preklopiti na peroralno, če lahko s peroralno aplikacijo dosežemo plazemske koncentracije penicilina, primerljive s tistimi po intravenski aplikaciji, t. j. enako povprečno plazemsko koncentracijo penicilina v stacionarnem stanju. Posledično lahko pričakujemo enako učinkovitost obeh aplikacij. Smiselnost preklopne terapije je treba proučiti predvsem s stališča bolnika, saj ni primerna za bolnike, ki so v kritičnem stanju in imajo močno zvišano telesno temperaturo ali malabsorbcijski sindrom. Prednost preklopne terapije pa je v tem, da zmanjša pojavnost flebitisa in seps. V članku sta obravnavana dva primera preklopne terapije. Na osnovi farmakokinetičnih simulacij in indeksov učinkovitosti protibakterijskega zdravljenja je pokazana primerljivost intravenske terapije z ampicilinom in peroralne terapije z amoksicilinom, medtem ko preklopna terapija pri zdravljenju osteomielitisa s kloksacilinom ostaja nedorečena. Na podlagi predstavljenih primerov članek ilustrativno prikazuje, da ustrezna razlaga farmakokinetičnih parametrov bistveno pripomore k pravočasnemu preklopu z intravenske na peroralno terapijo s penicilinom. Takšna terapija je bolniku bolj prijazna, poleg tega pa prispeva k zniževanju stroškov za zdravljenje z zdravili v bolnišnicah ob še vedno varni in učinkoviti farmakoterapiji bakterijskih okužb.

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Characteristics of coagulase positive staphylococci isolated from milk in cases of subclinical mastitis

Abstract

Coagulase-positive staphylococci are the most common pathogen causing subclinical mastitis in cows. Their main characteristic is a high virulence which leads to chronic infection. A total of 213 isolates of coagulase-positive staphylococci were tested. The majority of isolates (58%) formed a gold pigment, then light gold (28%), white gold (8%), golden gray, creamy white and white (2%). The majority of isolated coagulase-positive staphylococci produce beta hemolysis on esculin blood agar (50%), alpha and beta hemolysis (36%), beta and delta hemolysis (8%), delta hemolysis (4%), and alpha hemolysis (2%). Biochemical and molecular identification was performed by APISTAPH and multiplex PCR method. The majority of isolates were identified as S. aureus (88%), S. chromogenes (4%), and 2% of the isolates were identified as S. lentus, S. sciuri, S. xylosus, S. intermedius by APISTAPH. Antimicrobial susceptibility to penicillin G, was found by the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method to be resistant (62.44%). For disc diffusion penicillin G sensitive isolates the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was established for MIC50 and MIC90 as 0.003 mg/ml and 2μg/ml, respectively. For disc diffusion penicillin G resistant isolates MIC50 and MIC90 was 1.0μg/ml and 16μg/ ml, respectively. The study of phenotypic resistance to methicillin, as recommended by CLSI, established resistance to oxacillin in 5.26% of the isolates, while no resistance was found to cefoxitine. None of the tested isolates have the mecA gene.

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The effect of two compost soil amendments, based on municipal green and penicillin production wastes, on plant parasitic nematodes

Abstract

Suppressive effect of two composts, applied at five doses (0 %, 1 %, 2.5 %, 5 % and 10 % w/w), was studied on spring barley to control different genera of plant parasitic nematodes in potting mixtures. Amendment of soil with these materials resulted in a significant decreasing effect of plant parasitic nematode populations. The best reduction of number of plant parasitic nematodes was found for the nematode genera Bitylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Heterodera, Paratylenchus and Rotylenchulus by a municipal green compost (C1) and nematode genera Bitylenchus, Geocenamus, Helicotylenchus, and Rotylenchulus by a compost derived from penicillin production residues (C2). The compost C1 with a lower C:N ratio was more effective in the nematode control than the compost C2. The analysis of variance showed a significant interaction among all factors involved in the experiment: type of compost, different doses and nematode genera. Relationship between applied doses and number of nematodes showed a significantly high negative correlation.

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Stability of antibiotics in milk samples during storage

-temperature stability of five β-lactam antibiotics in bovine milk and milk extracts prepared for liquid chromatography-electroscopy ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis. J Chromatogr A 2004, 1054 , 359-363. 13. Schenk F.J., Friedman S.L.: The effect of storage at 4 C on the stability of ampicillin residues in raw milk. Food Addit Contam 2000, 17 , 675-677. 14. Verdon E., Fuselier R., Hartaud-Pessel D., Couëdor P., Cadieu N., Laurentie M.: Stability of penicillin antibiotic in meat during storage. Ampicillin. J Chromatogr A 2000, 882 , 135-143.

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Multidrug Resistance Among Enterococci at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Northern Bulgaria

-62. 25. Sredkova M. Resistance to penicillins, aminoglycosides and vancomycin in cnterocooci isolated from clinical specimens. Infoctology. 1999,36(2): 18-21. [In Bulgarian], 26. Thapa B, Tattawasart U, Manjai A, Chantarasuk Y. Antimiaobial resistance and species prevalence of cterocoocal isolates in Srinagarind Hospital, Northeastern Thailand KKU Res J (GS). 20I2;7 (4):97-107. 27. Butcu M, Akcay SS, Inan AS, Aksaray S, Engin IX), Calisid G. In vitro susceptibility of cnterocooci strains isolated from urine samples to fosfomycin and

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Lues Maligna as an Initial Presentation of Underlying HIV Infection in a Homosexual Man

manifestations of secondary syphilis. Int J Dermatol. 2014;53(12):1434-41. 17. Yang CJ, Lee NY, Lin YH, Lee HC, Ko WC, Liao CH, et al. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction after penicillin therapy among patients with syphilis in the era of the HIV infection epidemic: incidence and risk factors. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51(8):976-9. 18. Belum GR, Belum VR, Chaitanya Arudra SK, Reddy BS. The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction: revisited. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2013;11(4):231-7. 19. Lejman K, Starzycki Z. Syphilis maligna praecox. A case report. Br J

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The emergence of lincosamide and macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes from Pakistan

streptococcal inhibitor of complement-mediated lysis (SIC) [ 9 , 10 ]. Peptides from M antigen and Spe have been reported to have super-antigenic (SAg) activity [ 11 , 12 ]. Interestingly, the correlation of emm types with certain SAgs have been reported [ 11 , 13 ]. Penicillin is the drug of choice for infections caused by S. pyogenes . For patients who are allergic to penicillin, macrolides are suggested as the alternative treatment [ 8 , 14 , 15 ]. Severe and invasive cases of GAS infections are treated with combination therapy, including penicillin and

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Urethritis and antimicrobial resistance

-gonococcal urethritis. Int J STD AIDS 2009;20:458-64. 4. Bradshaw CS, Tabrizi SN, Fairley CK, Morton AN, Rudland E, Garland SM. The association of Atopobium vaginae and Gardnerella vaginalis with bacterial vaginosis and recurrence after oral metronidazole therapy. J Infect Dis 2006;194(6):828-36. 5. Morton RS. Gonorrhea: biological features of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. London: W.B. Saunders; 1977. p. 12-60. 6. Mahoney JF, Ferguson C, Buchholtz M, von Slyke CJ. The use of penicillin sodium in the treatment of sulfonamide-resistant gonorrhea

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