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of the main platforms disseminating reactions to political broadcasts and discussions of these events are closely connected with political coverage in the traditional media. Reading about party leaders’ debates on social media has become more common than watching them on television and people may read about the debates on Twitter before tuning in to watch ( Vaccari et al., 2015 ). The way mediated electoral events are reflected on Twitter is one aspect of a larger question about the relationship between social media and media coverage, alongside the issue of their

Literature in Belgium. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, 21 (1), 97–119. doi:10.1080/17457289.2011.539483 Pauwels, T. (2011b). Populisme in Vlaanderen. Samenleving en Politiek, 18 (7), 4–15. Pauwels, T. (2015). Populism in Western Europe: Comparing Belgium, Germany and The Netherlands . London: Routledge. Pilet, J.-B., & Cross, W. (2018). Dataset Comparative Study of Party Leaders (COSPAL) . Pilet, J.-B., & Wauters, B. (2014). The selection of party leaders in Belgium. In J.-B. Pilet & W. Cross (Eds.), The Selection of Political Party Leaders in

Abstract

The aim of this article is to analyse the role and importance of leaders in the Czech populist parties and movements, as well as determining significant factors which condition their institutionalisation. The main focus will be placed on the role of leaders in establishing their respective parties, their formal position and intraparty selection processes in VV, ANO, SPD and ÚPD. Examples of actions taken by the leaders of ANO and SPD show that building populist parties on the foundation of the strong, formal and official position of the leader in their party as well as becoming open to more members prove effective when it comes to the discussed issues...

media: a global perspective. Media, Culture & Society, 40(5), pp. 754–765. Sandri, G., Seddone, A. & Venturino, F. [2014]. The Selection of Party Leaders in Italy, 1989–2012, in J.B. Pilet and W.P. Cross (eds.), The Selection of Political Party Leaders in Contemporary Parliamentary Democracies. A Comparative Study. London and New York, Routledge, pp. 93–107. Sandri, G., Seddone, A., and Bulli, G. (2015). Party membership in Italy. In: E. Van haute and A. Gauja (eds.) Party Membership and Activism. London: Routledge, pp. 117–133. Stanley, B. (2008). The thin ideology

Parties. German Politics, 22 (3), 270–287. Detterbeck, K., & Rohlfing, I. (2014). Party leader selection in Germany. In J.-B. Pilet & W. P. Cross (Eds.), The selection of political party leaders in contemporary parliamentary democracies: A comparative study (pp. 77–92). New York: Routledge. FAZ. (2014, November 23). “Wir sind machmal leider noch sehr amateurhaft”. Retrieved from https://www.faz.net/-gpg-7wopi (Accessed on: 8 April 2019). FAZ. (2015, July 4). Petry gewinnt Machtkampf bei der AfD. Retrieved from https://www.faz.net/-gpg-85beh (Accessed on: 25 March

Państwowej pp. 177–193. Dzwończyk, Joanna. (2005). Populizm jako strategia polskich partii politycznych , In J. Kornas (Ed.), Partie polityczne: permanentne problemy. Studia z zakresu funkcjonowania systemu politycznego, Kielce: Wyższa Szkoła Ekonomii i Administracji im. prof. Edwarda Lipińskiego w Kielcach pp. 297–318. Hartliński, Maciej. (2011). Przywództwo partyjne w Polsce , Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek. Hartliński, Maciej. (2013). Contemporary “Prince”. Influence, the Position and Authority of Party Leaders, South-East European Journal of Political Science , 1

Abstract

Political parties in the Baltic states remain largely understudied, especially when it comes to the populist radical right (PRR). Currently, two of the three Baltic countries have PRR parties represented in their national parliaments, Nacionā lā apvienī ba (the National Alliance, henceforth the NA) in Latvia and Eesti Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond (the Conservative People’s Party of Estonia, henceforth EKRE) in Estonia. Both parties have charismatic leaders and are led in a top-down manner, keeping in line with the literature on this party family. Many political actors in numerous countries make ample use of Twitter and other social media, and the PRR in particular has proved very successful at using social media to their advantage.

My article provides a comparison between the leadership of the two aforementioned parties, using a paired comparison method, highlighting the position of the party leader; how each leader is selected; the political activity of party leaders; the electoral activity of each leader; and, finally, an analysis of how each party leader uses the social media microblogging site, Twitter.

The NA and EKRE are similar in that they are both parties which can be categorized in the PRR party family and are nationalist parties in countries which experienced Soviet occupation as well as the policy of Russification. Further, until quite recently1, both have directed nativist policies around language issues and the Russian-speaking population (Auers and Kasekamp 2013, Wierenga 2017). Therefore, the NA and EKRE make for an ideal comparison.2

References Allern, E. H. and Karlsen, R. (2014). ‘Unanimous, by acclamation? Party leadership selection in Norway’. In: Pilet, J. B., Cross, W. eds. The Selection of Political Party Leaders in Contemporary Parliamentary Democracies . London: Routledge, pp. 47-61. Bale, T. and Webb, P. (2014). ‘The selection of party leaders in the UK’. In: Pilet, J. B., Cross, W. eds. The Selection of Political Party Leaders in Contemporary Parliamentary Democracies . London: Routledge, pp. 12-29. Barberà, O., Rodriguez-Teruel, J., Barrio, A. and Baras, M. (2014). The selection

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. The Progress Party is the oldest successful right-wing populist party in the Nordic region ( Jungar & Jupskås, 2014 ; Jupskås, 2015 ), and given (former) party leader Carl I. Hagen’s dominant position within the party – for three decades, the public image of the party was closely linked to that of Hagen – the party, Hagen himself, and the episode are representative of West-European populist radical right parties and their reliance on charismatic, media-savvy leaders (see Mazzoleni, 2008 , 2014 ). It is thus an appropriate case for developing a concept that can

, Richard S. & Peter Mair (1992) Party Organizations — A Data Handbook. London: Sage. Katz, Richard S. & Peter Mair (red.) (1994) How Parties Organize . London: Sage. Katz, Richard S. & Peter Mair (1995) ‘Changing Models of Party Organizations and Party Democracy: The Emergence of the Cartel Party’. Party Politics 1(1): 5–28. Katz, Richard S. and Peter Mair. 2018. Democracy and the Catelization of Political Parties . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kefford, Glenn & Duncan McDonnell (2018) Inside the personal party: Leader-owners, light organizations and limited