This study examines the initial impact of a broadly participatory planning process in the Czech Republic during 2016–2017, aimed at both reducing inpatient care and expanding community mental health systems, on policy and programmatic decision making. A central focus of the study involves the trade-offs between and efforts to integrate shared decision making with evidence-based planning methods within the context of a national psychiatric reform strategy, particularly one involving a former Soviet bloc state.
Given the uniqueness of the Czech experience, an exploratory case study methodology is used, one involving ten interviews with key informants and examination of a wide variety of documents. Results include the development of broad new decision and oversight structures, and the initial implementation of community mental health services. The nation faces some of the same trade-offs found elsewhere, such as in the United States, between an inclusive participatory process, and one that systematically incorporates empirical rational and evidence and best practices within bounded parameters.
Implications for new psychiatric deinstitutionalization initiatives are identified, including development of a national mental health authority, a professional workforce, new funding strategies, multi-level service coordination, mechanisms to assure transparency, among others.
In European countries, current forest use aims to enhance goods and services supplied by forest ecosystems, taking into account the multiple needs and interests of society through a participatory process. A successful participatory process requires a thorough analysis of stakeholders’ perceptions and preferences. The aim of this paper is to investigate the differences between stakeholders’ perceived influence and real power in forest management. A questionnaire survey was carried out among 51 forest stakeholders in a case study in the Italian Alps. Perceived influence was measured by asking stakeholders to rate on a 5-point scale the extent to which they can influence forest management issues. Real power was analyzed using social network analysis (SNA), investigating the relationships that stakeholders have with each other in the network. Real power was measured using a Freeman’s degree centrality measure, which focuses on the direct ties coming in and out for each stakeholder. The results show that public administration is the category of stakeholders with the most power in all forest management issues, while the actors of the tourism sector are in a marginal position. In addition, the results of the study suggest that in many cases stakeholders have a distorted perception of their own power.
Stefania Środa-Murawska, Leszek S. Dąbrowski and Paweł Smoliński
Before 1989 Polish law generally prevented residents from making decisions on the use of public areas. The participatorydecision-making process introduced from that year onwards was continually developed and enhanced by introducing new options. Participatorydecision-making, or social participation, is a process based on ‘the involvement of individuals in the affairs of a wider community, cooperation with others in a situation of dependence of interests’ that allows the ‘formulation of the social ideal, desired shape and democratic order
Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) requires learner-centred and interactive teaching strategies such as critical thinking, participatory decision-making, value-based learning, and multi-method approaches, all of which to some degree contrast traditional lecture-based teaching practices. As there is very little evidence providing international comparison across different educational backgrounds, the research digs deeper into the effects of a pluralistic ESD approach to teaching in the context of Japanese primary and secondary education. Based on answers from a questionnaire administered by head teachers in 469 ESD schools, the present research shows that teachers recognise that at least in relation to the local environment, community welfare, and depopulation of communities, the students are increasingly aware of their role and the need to act ambitiously to create a sustainable society. In these teacher comments about ESD methods, the main emphases were on the whole system, for example, the use of integrated studies (referred to 37 times), cross-curriculum development (13), and the ESD calendar (12). The fact that ESD is learner-centred (26), learning in the society (23) focused on collaboration with local community, and based on active learning (20) also frequently appeared. The research also reveals that by using local resource materials and conducting experiential activities, studentsí awareness of their local district deepens, and students then start to tackle with difficulties of local society such as declining population, protection of natural environment, and preservation of traditional culture by themselves. However, it cannot be said that teachers clearly understand their role as coaches and change agents, and there were no reported cases of teachers and students collaboratively designing school activities. Thus, there is still space for more profound teaching and learning growth in ESD in Japan.
Ascroft, J. and Masilela, S. (1994) ‘Participatorydecision-making in Third World development’, in White, S.A., Nair, K.S. and Ascroft, J. (eds) Participatory Communication: Working for Change and Development . Sage Publications, New Delhi
Cabrera, Luis (2010) The practice of global citizenship . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Enghel, Florencia (2011) ‘Communication, Development and Social Change: Future Alternatives’. Paper accepted for presentation at the ICA Conference (Boston
of the Forestry Academy of Sciences of Ukraine 12: 178–185. (in Ukrainian)
P aletto , A. – B alest , J. – D emeo , I. – G iacovelli , G. – G rilli , G. (2016). Power of forest stakeholders in the participatorydecisionmaking process: A case study in northern Italy. Acta Silvatica et Lignaria Hungarica 12(1), 9–22. https://doi.org/10.1515/aslh-2016-0002
P aletto , A. – D e M eo , I. – F erretti , F. (2010): Social network analysis to support the forest landscape planning: an application in Argi-Grighine, Sardinia (Italy). Forestry Ideas 1: 28
Łukasz Damurski CDFMR, Jacek Pluta CDMR, Karel Maier DMR and Hans Thor Andersen DMR
directly expressed in the questionnaire, the problem of so called “silent voices” was raised by two interviewees:
The municipality has a problem defining the real opinions of people. The main issue here is the “silent majority”, whose opinions are unknown. Without this knowledge the participatorydecision-making is very difficult .
(district councillor, Prague)
We do have NGOs, but it is a thin layer; it is a group of activists, so called urban movements; those are organisations that include only a couple of people. And they are very good partners, but they are
, lack of leadership, lack of accountability, secrecy, and top-down micro-management. A law school dean can instead encourage, hearten, and inspire a law school’s faculty, students, and staff by running a law school with accountability, confident leadership, ethical leadership, participatorydecision-making, and transparency. Leadership can make a big difference in the daily lived experiences of a law school’s faculty, students, and staff. I co-authored an article applying psychological game theory to demonstrate the importance of organizational leaders being ethical