Sport plays an important role in modern societies, including those in Europe. However, individual countries differ in terms of their citizens’ participation in universally accessible sport. In some societies, the percentage of people who pursue different sports is high, while in other countries it is insignificant. What are the reasons behind such differences? What variables are crucial to accounting for these differences? How has Polish society changed in this regard? Theoretical and empirical analyses show that people in Poland are becoming increasingly active when it comes to sport. In terms of taking part in sport, Polish society is starting to catch up with other European societies. The decisive role in the process is played by: a) social factors (education and affluence), b) the ideals and values that dominate the local culture (physical appearance, kinetic pleasures, and positive emotions), and c) the efficiency and adequacy of the physical education system in schools (innovation, the use of cyberspace, and efforts aimed at addressing social needs). If these three areas of socialization - society, culture and physical education in schools - reach a high level of convergence and if fewer variables hinder the process than at present, people in Poland will become as physically active as other societies in the West.
The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD) and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186) was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88) and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points) indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.
The aim of the study was to compare the satisfaction with quality of life indicators (QoLI) and quality of life domains (QoLD) scores between people with physical disabilities (PPD) and people who are deaf or hard of hearing (PD/HH) from sport participation point of view. The study included 315 individuals with PPD (n = 150; male = 76) and PD/HH (n = 165; male = 85) divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport and those who are not participating in any sport activity in their leisure. The second part of the Subjective Quality of Life Analysis (S.QUA.L.A.) was used. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences in 23 QoLI and 5 QoLD between PPD and PD/HH from sport participation point of view and student’s two-sample t-test was used to compare overall quality of life (QoL). We found that PD/HH who are participating regularly in sport presented significantly higher satisfaction with 7 evaluated QoLI and with all 5 QoLD. Overall QoL score was significantly higher (p < .01) in PD/HH. In the group of people who are not participating in sport we found significantly higher satisfaction with 13 QoLI in PD/HH and with 8 QoLI in PPD. Satisfaction with 4 QoLD was significantly higher in PD/HH and only with domain (physical health) were significantly higher satisfied PPD (p < .01). Overall QoL score did not show significant differences between groups of people with disabilities who are not participating in any sport. The results of our study confirmed that PD/HH have significantly higher QoL comparing PPD no matter if they participating in sport or not. This evaluation measured by S.QUA.L.A shows that it is a suitable tool to asses QoL in people with different kinds of disabilities.
The study investigated student involvement in sports as part of co-curricular activities in the school and outside, and the effect of parental support upon their child’s participation in sport. The purpose of the study was to investigate in-depth the views of year 11 students from six Australian schools about their parents’ influence on their participation in sport. The schools agreed to allow their students to participate on a voluntary basis. The primary data were gathered from 111 students in the form of written personal statements in response to the researcher’s open-ended guideline questions, based on the humanistic sociological approach of studying respondents’ personal perspectives on a particular phenomenon. The 80% of respondents who claimed to play sport were involved in a total of 23 different sports, with soccer being the most frequently mentioned (29%). The 20% of respondents who did not play sport all attended schools where participation in sport was not compulsory. Parental support for sports participation was evident in 89% of their comments, but only 11% of parents played an active role. The negative family constraints identified by 15% of respondents referred to issues such as lack of parental interest in sport, concerns about safety, maintaining a balance between sport and other areas of life, and the cost involved
It has been thought that sportspersons, through their participation in sport, acquire moral attitudes and behavior that make them good moral role models. These moral attitudes and behavior can be called the ethos of sport, and consist of the principles of fair play and courage, justice, and honesty. In this article, it is argued that this belief is mistaken. Through four very common examples of sporting practice, it is shown that sport, contrary to providing a good basis for proper moral behavior, promotes what otherwise would be called non-moral attitudes and behavior. As a conclusion, it is pointed out that sportspersons might very well be good moral role models, but that they would be moral role models in spite of the fact that they are involved in sporting activities.
Elżbieta Biernat, Małgorzata Tyburcy and Antoni Gajewski
Participation in Competitive Sport and Sport Leisure Among Working Inhabitants of Warsaw Based on Selected Groups
Introduction. The aim of this work was to explore sports activities among various socio-professional groups based on the example of the inhabitants of Warsaw. Material and methods. The sample comprised of 6547 inhabitants of Warsaw - representatives of 16 professional groups. The study was conducted with the use of an especially designed questionnaire, featuring two sections - the first one devoted to organised sport, and the second and on the participation in sport leisure (regular, periodical, sporadic) within the previous year. In keeping with the European definition, sport is understood as both competitive sport, and regular sport leisure or recreation. The survey was carried out by trained interviewers exclusively in March and November 2006-2008. Results. Participation in sport activities among Poles increased not only compared to other European countries, but also to previous Polish studies, as it pertained to 43% of Warsaw inhabitants. The proportion of Warsaw residents involved in organised sport amounted to 6%, and those involved in regular recreation to 41%. Pupils and students are the most active both in sport and in leisure. Nearly 19% of pupils and nearly 8% of students are involved in organised sport activities, while for sport leisure this proportion amounts to 55% and 50% respectively. In the case of both competitive sport activities and leisure the number of men exceeds the number of women involved in them. Conclusions. Sport activities that Poles involve in are still not close to the recommended WHO and ATMS norms.
Introduction. The present study investigates the characteristics of the environmental factors that influence the structure of sport amongst young people; alongside this, the study also attempts to describe the influential role of parents in the development of sporting talent; finally, the study emphasizes the significance of parents' educational beliefs concerning the acquisition of life-long social skills through participation in sport in demanding competitive environments. Material and
methods. 8 semi-structured interviews and 3 unstructured interviews were conducted among young people participating in a semi-professional club at national competitive level. A field diary was also collected. Results. Qualitative analysis revealed that: a) structural and organizational aspects, as well as the overall climate of the club, shape the behavior of young people in relation to social goals; b) parents play an important role as socializers in competitive environments; c) parents display a solid awareness of their own influence on the attitudes and behavior of young people. Conclusions. The findings highlight the important role of parents in sport participation in highly competitive environments. The study also shows contextual factors as predictors of the degree of youngsters' social and personal variables in performance levels. Implications for parental involvement in youth sport as well as future research directions are further discussed.
Azadeh Mohamadinejad, Hamidreza Mirsafian, Andras Nemes and Mohammad Soltanhoseini
Everybody who illegally harms another not only must recover the injured person, but also, may be committed a crime and be punished. According to this doctrine, every time that a participant in a sport activity touches a fellow player, or consciously runs the risk that an opponent may be touched during the game, an offence is committed and he or she is liable. This is clearly an unacceptable situation. If this were the usual way a participant in violence was dealt with by the courts, nobody would play sport, as the risk of conviction would be too great. Sport would be unable to continue in the form that we presently know it. On the other hand, sports often have inherent risks that cannot be eliminated without destroying the very essence of the activity. Consent and assumption of risk defenses in sport accident cases significantly affect resolving the conflict between performing sport as a useful and beneficial activity versus a dangerous practice, and prevent liability from being imposed for just participation in sport activity. Thus, discussion about these defenses can help athletes be more aware of their rights.
Generational differences in the motivational factors that drive Cypriots to participate in sporting activities
Study aim: To examine the factors that motivate Cypriots to participate in sport, particularly examining the differences between the last 3 generations regarding their motivations for sport involvement at the present and at the ages of 12-18 years.
Material and methods: The study was completed by survey method among 3 generational groups in Cyprus comprised of secondary school students, their parents, and their grandparents (N=1067). Data were collected via questionnaires that contained 3 open-ended, 16 multiple-choice, and 12 semantic differential scale questions. The response rate was 100% for the students, 77.4% for the parents, and 65.5% for the grandparents. The data were analyzed by the SPSS program for Microsoft Windows; factor analysis and one-way analysis of variance were used.
Results: The examined motivations were clustered into two factors: Joy Factor and Health Factor. Significant differences were found among the 3 generations in their sporting activities at present and the ages of 12-18 years. The students' participation motivations for sport are closely related to fun and enjoyment. Their parents have similar motives at present, but in their childhood they considered health enhancement as the most important reason for sport involvement. The oldest generation regarded the improvement of their health as a stimulating factor for sport in their childhood and youth; they did not change this during their whole life cycle.
Conclusions: Generational differences in the motivation for participation in sport are probably universal, but their elements are dissimilar depending on the value system in general and in sport in societies. The historical and cultural circumstances in Cyprus allow for the generalization of the conclusions only at the national level.
Introduction and objective: In Poland, there are only a few studies that refer to the whole society’s participation in sport and recreation and that are based an the international questionnaire thus allowing for comparative analysis with other European reports. The aim of the study was to determine the association between leisure physical activity and socio-demographic variables. Methods: A survey based on CAPI was carried out in Poland from October to November 2012. A random sample of Polish adults (N=1,633) was interviewed using the IPAQ-long form. The data were analyzed using standard statistical procedures. Results: More than 21% of Polish subjects did not undertake any physical activity in their leisure time. Of those who were physically active, over 70% engaged in vigorous physical activity; only one in four respondents performed moderate physical activity or walking. The average leisure physical activity of the Poles was 1,916.9 ± 2,621 MET-min/week. A comparison of the current results and European research findings demonstrated that the median physical activity for the Polish population (MET-min/week) was similar to the median values for Czech subjects and Norwegian males and nearly three times higher than Croats. Conclusions: Insufficient participation in the conscious process of caring for one’s health is a common occurrence among adults living in the EU. In order to encourage the Polish population’s participation in physical activities, it is necessary to raise their awareness of the need of well-balanced, regular exercise. Furthermore, this study suggests that caution is warranted before using the CAPI technique to provide the IPAQ-long form survey.