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Introduction There has been a plethora of studies conducted on different aspects of parenting and how it affects children. Parenting style refers to a general child-rearing pattern that characterizes parents’ behaviors toward their child(ren) ( Deslandes et al. 1997 ). It is the global construct that reflects the overall emotional tone of parent–child relationship ( Chao 2001 ). Diana Baumrind identified as well as defined three different parenting styles, namely, authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive parenting style ( Baumrind 1971 ). In addition

References Akinsola, E. F., (2011). Relationship between Parenting Style, Family Type, Personality Dispositions and Academic Achievement of Young People in Nigeria. Ife psychologia, 19.2 .p246-276. Albright, S., Winston, W., & Zappe, C. (2010). Data analysis and decision making (4th ed.) . Retrieved from Ali, A. S. M. (2011). The Use of Non-Verbal Communication in Classroom . A paper presented in the 1 st Ineternational Conference on Foreign Language Teaching and Applied Linguistic Tabuk University. Antonio, M., Maria Jose H (2014


Introduction: Negative parental behaviour is among the significant risk factors that can have a negative impact on an individual’s development. In certain contexts, when appropriate protective factors are available, individuals deal with adversity better and it does not come to a decrease in their social performance nor their achievement in various spheres of life.

Purpose: The purpose of the presented paper is to provide a literature review on the role of resilience in dealing with harsh circumstances when negative parental behaviour occurs in a family.

Methods: In the study, the traditional desk research method was used to gather data.

Conclusions: Exposure to negative parental behaviour – including abuse and neglect, as well as domestic violence, can have detrimental consequences for children’s health and welfare. Under such circumstances, protective factors available to children play a significant role. Exposure to negative parental behaviour, including abuse and neglect, as well as domestic violence, can have detrimental consequences for children’s health and welfare. Under such circumstances, protective factors available to children play a significant role. If a family fails to protect a child or even represents a risk factor in the child’s life, the importance of other social institutions, such as schools, church, peer groups, etc., increases, as both internal and external protective factors are important. They can provide children at risk with support, help them develop own coping strategies and foster their resilience in order to overcome significant adversity in their families without serious harm. An individual’s resilience is a decisive factor in the process of dealing with threatening situations.


In this review paper we wanted to summarize all the aspects which could affect the behavior of the child patients in the dental office. At the beginning, the factors that are related to the child patients are mentioned. Various segments of child psychological, cognitive, physiological and other kinds of development are discussed. Also, the reasons for dental fear and anxiety (DFA) and dental behavior problems (DBP) were analyzed, and how the child dental patients could cope with them. Finally, types of patients according to their behavior in the dental office were discussed. Furthermore, the influences of child patients’ parents were studied, including parenting styles, as well as factors related to dentist, dental team and the dental office. Finally, critical evaluation of administration of assets to measure the presence of DFA and DBP is provided. Every part of the text was corroborated by the results from our own and other authors’ recent bibliography data.


A lack of learners’ discipline is a major school problem in secondary schools in Mauritius. The study aims at determining and examining the main causes of this problem in the context of Mauritius. Qualitative data were collected from learners, educators, principals and parents of four secondary schools by using focus group interviews and individual face-to-face interviews. By using content analysis, the study revealed that the causes of learners’ lack of discipline originate from the family (the parenting style, working parents, ineffective parental discipline and the dysfunctional family), the learners’ attitudes to education and schooling, the educators’ attitudes to their role of maintaining learner discipline, the principals’ lack of authority and leadership in managing learner discipline and the influence of peer group in the school setting. The study shows that all the stakeholders of the school community are responsible for the deterioration of learner discipline in secondary schools. It recommends that there should be a decentralisation of learner discipline strategies from the Ministry of Education to the secondary school principals who should be empowered to set up their institutional school discipline plan.

References 1. Snoek F, Skinner C. Psychology in diabetes care. 2nd ed. West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2005. 2. Anderson B, Vangsness L, Connell A, Butler D, Goebel-Fabbri A, Laffel LMB. Family conflict, adherence, and glycaemic control in youth with short duration Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med 2002; 19: 635-42. 3. Shorer M, David R, Schoenberg-Taz M, Levavi-Lavi I, Phillip M, Meyerovitch J. Role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 1735-7. 4. Wiebe DJ, Berg CA, Korbel C, Palmer DL

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needs of diverse learners. In J. S. Choate (Ed.), Succesful inclusive teaching . Boston: Pearson education. Ikhart, P., & Szobiová, E. (2018). Parenting styles and mental health of adolescents. In E. Gajdošová et al. (Eds.), Duševné zdravie a welbeing virtuálnej generácie (pp. 64-78). Bratislava: Ipčko. Kerekešová, M. (2007). Pevne objímať majú rodičia, nie terapeut. Nebyť sám, 4 (1), 12. Kósová, T. (2015). Sociálno-výchovná starostlivosť rodiny a mimorodinného života (diploma thesis). Dubnica nad Váhom: DTI University. Lahe, D. (2011). Research on abouse and

- child relationship. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, INC. Mandal E. (2006). Osobowość kobiet i mężczyzn: różnice generacyjne i rozwojowe. [The personality of men and women: generational differences and development.] Psychologia Rozwojowa. [Developmental Psychology]. (2), 23-34. Napora, E., Schneider A.M. (2010). The Influence of Parenting style in Single Mother Families from the South of Poland on an Emotional Functioning of Adolescent Girls and Boys. Polish Journal of Applied Psychology, 8: 1. Plopa, M. (2005). Psychologia rodziny. Teoria i badania.[A psychology

konfliktów i ich efekty w relacji między rodzicami i adolescentami – prezentacja narzędzi pomiaru. W: D. Borecka-Biernat (red.). Sytuacje konfliktu w środowisku rodzinnym, szkolnym i rówieśniczym . Jak sobie radzą z nimi dzieci i młodzież? Warszawa: Difin SA. 180‒206. McCullough, G., Huebner, E. S., Laughlin, J. E. (2000). Life events, self-concept, and adolescents’ positive subjective well-being. Psychology in the Schools, 37 , 281‒290. Mupinga E.E., Garrison M.E.B., Pierce S.H. (2002). An Exploratory Study of the Relationships Between Family Functioning and Parenting