AHyaluronic acid (HA) is part of the extracellular matrix of connective, epithelial and neural tissues, as well as the synovial fluid, skin, and cartilage. It is composed of repeating disaccharide units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine. Hyaluronic acid is used in abdominal surgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, rhinology; it is usable for the osteoarthritis treatment. The membranes of eggshell are a natural source of hyaluronic acid, collagen, glycosaminoglycan and collagenous proteins. In paper, we tested the possibility of extraction hyaluronic acid from the eggshell membranes by enzymatic hydrolysis. We identified optimal conditions of hydrolysis with trypsin at reaction temperature of 37 °C and pH 8; with pepsin at 40 °C and pH 3, as well as with papain at 60 °C and pH 7.5. The content of hyaluronic acid in samples was determined spectrophotometrically using the carbazole method. The experimental results showed a yield of ~ 4 -4.5 % hyaluronic acid per 1 g of dry eggshell membranes.
Guowei Shu, Qian Zhang, He Chen, Hongchang Wan and Hong Li
Oxidation was related to the pathogenesis of human diseases. Adequate intake of antioxidant activity of food can reduce the levels of free radicals, prevent lipid peroxidation, and help the body against diseases. In the paper, casein from goat milk was hydrolyzed by five commercial proteases, namely, Alcalase, flavourzyme, papain, proteinase K and trypsin. The antioxidant activities of casein hydrolysates were assessed by evaluating hydrolysis degree, DPPH radical-scavenging activity, metal-chelating activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The results showed as follows: the DH of proteinase K, Alcalase, and trypsin were higher significantly than those of papain and flavourzyme. The Fe2+-chelation activity and superoxide radical scavenging activity of casein hydrolysates from goat milk by Alcalase was higher than the others, the DPPH scavenging activities of casein hydrolysates by Alcalase and papain was higher than the others and the DPPH scavenging activities by Alcalase and papain had no significant diffierence (p<0.05), so the optimal proteinase for hydrolysis casein from goat milk to produce antioxidant peptide was Alcalase.
., 2007 ; Singh and Ramaswamy, 2014 ; Garcia-Mora et al ., 2015 ; Girgih et al ., 2015 ).
The aim of this study was to generate hydrolysates with PEP- and DPP-IV-inhibitory bioactivities from bovine lung using the enzymes Alcalase, collagenase and papain, in addition to studying the effect of heat and pressure pre-treatments on the DPP-IV- and PEP-inhibitory activities of bovine lung hydrolysates. Hydrolysates generated using Alcalase, collagenase and papain after pre-treatment with temperature or pressure were screened for their ability to inhibit the enzymes
Cysteine cathepsins and stefins in head and neck cancer: an update of clinical studies
Background. Cancer of the head and neck represents a diverse group of malignant diseases; so far, no factor in a wide spectrum of biochemical and histological candidate-markers has yet been identified to predict reliably the natural course of the disease or its response to the therapy to be used in routine clinical practice. Among the factors that promote tumor growth and invasion, several protease systems, implemented in proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix components, were studied, including papain-like lysosomal cysteine proteases (e.g. cathepsins B and L) and their physiological inhibitors cystatins (e.g. stefins A and B, cystatin C). The aim of the present report is to review the published studies on clinical applicability of cysteine cathepsins and their endogenous inhibitors stefins in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and to present recent research results from this area conducted jointly by the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana and ENT Department of the University Medical Center Ljubljana, Slovenia.
Conclusions. According to our experience, immunohistochemical staining of cysteine cathepsins and stefins seems to be of limited value for predicting either treatment response or patients' survival. However, the results of studies on stefin A in tumor tissue cytosols should be considered hypothesis-generating and deserves further evaluation in the frame of prospective controlled multicentric clinical study.
Since the 1990s exports of fresh agricultural products by air from Uganda have been increasing and making a significant contribution to her International trade. Products include mostly fish, flowers, papain, and vanilla constituting over 95% of all air exports. Farming of the items is mainly by small scale farmers who depend on the natural climate of the country. Consequently, monthly yields are also climate dependent making individual export volumes unpredictable. In spite of these uncertainties, this study was intended to investigate possible existence of a model in the trends. Monthly data were collected from Uganda Civil Aviation Authority from 2009 to 2012. Analysis was by using ARIMA Approach with the help of Eviews 8. Visually the data exhibited irregular patterns and without a trend or seasonality. First order differencing stationarised the data and the residuals had a random non-significant noise suggesting a Random Walk Model expressed as ARIMA (0, 1, 0) and a negative drift. The model shows a link between current and one lag export volumes and the negative drift is a convergence of successive differences in export volumes. These findings have policy implications in expansion and forecasting of the exports potential of applicability of Random Walk Theory in practice.
Piotr Minkiewicz, Jerzy Dziuba, Małgorzata Darewicz, Justyna Bucholska and Damir Mogut
Evaluation of In Silico Prediction Possibility of Epitope Sequences Using Experimental Data Concerning Allergenic Food Proteins Summarised in BIOPEP Database
The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of predicting potential epitope sequences and location in allergenic proteins from food using EVALLER program by comparison with experimental epitopes summarised in the BIOPEP database of allergenic proteins. Sequences of experimental epitopes from food allergens, present in the BIOPEP database of allergenic proteins were used in the study. Sequences of potential epitopes were found using EVALLER program. The Positive Predictive Value (PPV) has been used as a measure of prediction quality. The potential epitopes fully or partially overlapping with the experimental ones were considered as true positive results whereas these unrelated to the experimental ones as false positive results. The PPV for entire dataset containing 310 potential epitopes was 80.6%. The PPV varied significantly among particular allergen families defined according to the AllFam database. Caseins revealed PPV=100% (with one exception), proteins from tropomyosin family and proteins from papain-like cystein protease family - exceeding 50%. The last two families possess also relatively low frequency of epitope occurrence. The predictive potential was poor (less than 50%) for plant allergens from cupin superfamily. Families such as lipocalins from milk and EF-hand family (parvalbumins) revealed high variability within family. The EVALLER program may be used as a tool for the prediction of epitope location although its potential varies considerably among allergen families. High PPV is associated with a high number of known experimental epitopes (such as in caseins) and/or a high degree of sequence conservation within family (caseins, tropomyosins).
: Enzymatic debridement of large burn wounds with papain-urea: Is it safe ? Medical Journal Armed Forces India , 69, 144—150.
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6. Onesti, M. G., Fioramonti, P., Fino, P., Sorvillo, V., Carella, S., Scuderi, N., 2015: Effect of enzymatic debridement with two different collagenases versus mechanical debridement on chronic hard-to-heal wounds
Józef Nastaj, Agata Przewłocka and Monika Rajkowska-Myśliwiec
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Kanupriya Chaturvedi, Padmakar Bommisetty, Arpita Pattanaik, Vasugi Chinnaiyan, Dinesh M. Ramachandra and Aswath Chennareddy
. W., Stiles, J. I., Zee, F. T., Patterson, A. H., Ming, R., 2004: A primitive Y chromosome in papaya marks incipient sex chromosome evolution. Nature 427, 348-352.
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Mandolino, G., Carboni, A., Forapani, S., Faeti, v., Ranalli, P., 1999: Identification of DNA markers linked to the male sex in dioecious hemp ( Cannabis sativa L
Jarosław Popiel, Agnieszka Cekiera, Agnieszka Kurosad, Urszula Pasławska, Agnieszka Noszczyk-Nowak and Józef Nicpo
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