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Geochemical assessment of claystone deposits from the Patti Formation, Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria


Geochemical studies of claystone deposits from the Patti Formation in the southern Bida Basin, north-Central Nigeria, were carried out on representative samples to determine the basin’s depositional conditions, provenance and tectonic setting. The localities within the study area included Gegu, Ahoko, Ahoko-Etigi, Omu and Idu.

Semi-quantitative phase analysis using the Rietveld method and X-ray powder diffraction data revealed that the claystone samples had prominent kaolinite with other constituents such as quartz, illite–muscovite, K-feldspar, pyrite, marcasite, anatase, rutile and gorceixite.

Enrichment of Al2O3, Ba, Th, Sr, Cr and La suggests that these elements are primarily controlled by the dominant clay minerals.

Geochemical parameters such as U, U/Th, Ni/Co, V/Cr and Cu/Zn ratios strongly implied that these claystones were deposited in an oxidising environment. Provenance deducing ratios for felsic, mafic and basic igneous rocks were compared. Al2O3/TiO2 ratio suggested intermediate to felsic rocks as the probable source rocks for the claystone samples; however, Y/Ni, Cr/V, La/Sc and Th/Sc ratios suggested a felsic progenitor. The tectonic discrimination diagram showed that the samples’ plot was within the region specified for passive margin-type tectonic setting.

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High-frequency sea-level changes recorded in deep-water carbonates of the Upper Cretaceous Dol Formation (island of Brač, Croatia)

reflected in carbonate basin facies (Triassic, Northern Calcareous Alps, Austria). Facies 25, 253-278. Reijmer J. J. G., Ten Kate W. G. H. Z., Sprenger A. & Schlager W. 1991: Calciturbidite composition related to exposure and flooding of a carbonate platform (Triassic, Eastern Alps). Sedimentology 38, 1059-1074. Savrda C. E. & Bottjer D. J. 1986: Trace-fossil model for reconstruction of paleo-oxygenation in bottom waters. Geology 14, 1, 3-6. Savrda C. E. & Bottjer D. J. 1989: Trace

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Genetic sequence stratigraphy on the basis of ichnology for the Middle Jurassic basin margin succession of Chorar Island (eastern Kachchh Basin, western India)

.D. & Uygur, K., 1982. Mixed terrigenous-carbonate rocks in Jurassic Arapien Shale of central Utah. [In:] D.L. Nielson (Ed.): Overthrust belt of Utah . Utah Geological Association 10, 181–198. Ruban, D.A., 2015. Mesozoic long-term eustatic cycles and their uncertain hierarchy. Geoscience Frontiers 6, 503–511. Savrda, C.E. & Bottjer, D.J., 1986. Trace-fossil model for reconstruction of paleo-oxygenation in bottom waters. Geology 15, 3–6. Seilacher, A., 1953. Studien zur Palichnologie II. Die fossilen Ruhespuren (Cubichnia). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie

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Oligocene dinoflagellate cysts from the North Alpine Foreland Basin: new data from the Eggerding Formation (Austria)

-200. Popov S. V., Rögl F., Rozanov A. Yu., Steininger F. F., Shcherba I. G. & Kováč M. 2004: Lithological-Paleogeographic maps of Paratethys. Cour. Forsch.-Inst. Senckenberg 250, 1-46; maps 1-10. Powell A. J. 1992: Dinocysts of the Tertiary system. In: Powell A. J. (Ed.): A stratigraphic index of dinocysts. British Micropalaeont. Soc. Publ. Ser., Chapman and Hall , London, 155-251. Pross J. 2001: Paleo-oxygenation in Tertiary epeiric seas: evidence from dinoflagellate cysts. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol

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Trace-fossil assemblages with a new ichnogenus in “spotted”
(Fleckenmergel—Fleckenkalk) deposits: a signature of oxygen-limited benthic communities

(Italy): parallels and differences. Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 123, 468-484. Savrda C.E. & Bottjer D.J. 1986: Trace-fossil model for reconstruction of paleo-oxygenation in bottom waters. Geology 14, 3-6. Savrda C.E. & Bottjer D.J. 1991: Oxygen-related biofacies in marine strata: an overview and update. In: Tyson R.V. & Pearson T.H. (Eds.): Modern and ancient continental shelf anoxia. Geol. Soc., Spec. Publ. 58, 201-219. Schlirf M. 2011: A new classification concept for U-shaped spreite trace fossils. Neu. Jb. Geol

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Palaeontology of the Middle Turonian limestones of the Nysa Kłodzka Graben (Sudetes, SW Poland): biostratigraphical and palaeogeographical implications

. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 149- 158. Savrda, C. E. & Bottjer, D. J., 1986. Trace fossil model for reconstruction of paleo-oxygenation in bottom waters. Geology 14, 3-6. Schoeneichowa-Jaskowiak, M. & Krassowska, A., 1988. Paleomiąższości, litofacje i paleotektonika epikontynentalnej kredy górnej w Polsce [Palaeothickness, lithofacies and palaeotectonics of the epicontinental Upper Cretaceous in Poland]. Kwartalnik Geologiczny 32, 177-198. (in Polish, with English summary) Scupin, H., 1907. Die

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